It is appropriate that, at long
last, the management strategies of the Palmiet Nature Reserve are being committed
to print. While there is no doubt that it has been excellently managed over
the years by competent staff who are trained to implement management procedures
in natural areas, it is important that the decisions, made over the years,
are recorded in an all inclusive document. This will enable the management
to be seen in totality and not in separate sheets of paper or, worse still,
in the minds of those who evolve the policy.
It should be noted that the approaches
to the management of natural areas are never static. Methods of management
implementation are therefore liable to change and review. Usher (1973, P 308),
sums this up succinctly: "Management is thus an imprecise science, the
lack of precision being contributed both by the inherent variability of organisms
and ecosystems, and by the very nature of the limitations imposed by man.
Management is itself concerned with intervention within the ecosystem, either
to alter the status quo in a wanted direction, or to prevent the status quo
altering in an unwanted direction. In order to undertake such actions one
is almost always faced with a lack of specific data about the biological mechanisms
involved, and hence one will have to estimate what is likely to happen, another
source of imprecision". It is therefore imperative that this Management
Plan is dynamic and subject to review and amendment in the light of new research
The format used in this Management
Plan is based on that used in Usher (1973, Pp 309 to 312) and Link (1985),
with additional aspects, where appropriate. Having looked at small nature
reserves, and particularly the Palmiet Nature Reserve (Cottrell, 1978) for
my Master's degree, it has been rewarding to assemble this Management Plan
into a workable document.
Members PNRMANCOM for support and decision
making which has enabled this Management Plan to evolve over the years since
Peter Brigg, Estates Manager of
the former Westville Municipality, for his outstanding work in increasing
the size of PNR over the years.
C J (Roddy) Ward for his early role
on PNRMANCOM and private discussions over the years, especially with regard
to grassland management.
The former PNR Manager, Stephen Butler,
for his regular discussions on management in PNR and in implementing management
decisions. He is thanked for his comments and assistance in the committing
of this Management Plan to print.
Jean Senogles, Prof. Helen Watson
and Prof. Steven Piper for their critical comments in their reading of the
draft of this Management Plan.
My thanks to my wife, Stella, for
typing and proof reading the text.
Michael J Cottrell September
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
AMAFA KZN Provincial Heritage Protection
DMOSS Durban Metropolitan Open Space System (sometimes referred to as MOSS)
EKZNWL Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife (formerly Natal Parks Board)
PNR Palmiet Nature Reserve
PNRMANCOM Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee
PNR Manager The person responsible for implementing the management in the
UD-W University of Durban-Westville, also UD-W Conservancy
Unless the date of approval is specifically stated, the contents of this Management
Plan represents the management strategy that has operated since the Palmiet
Nature Reserve opened in 1972. The full Management Plan as a single document
was reviewed and approved by the PNRMANCOM on 12/11/2003.
1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1.1 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
1.1.1 PNR is a community managed
municipal Nature Reserve. It is located 11 km fromcentral Durban in Westville,
a suburb of the Ethekwini Municipality, in the Palmiet River valley, from
which it takes its name. It extends some 4,8 km along the Palmiet River, while
the UD-W Conservancy follows the river for another 1,8 km. The PRN is 0,9
km at its widest point, across the Faurea woodland spur to the opposite southern
slope. It is therefore somewhat elongated in shape, following the meandering
1.1.2 Grid reference at Gwalagwala
main entrance: 29?49'28"S, 30?55'33"E.
1.1.3 Area: ??? ha. Refer to Appendix
1.1 for the Lot numbers that make up the PNR and Appendix 1.2 for a Point
to Point description.
1.1.4 Access: The main entrance
at Gwalagwala is at the end of Old New Germany Road. The Dorothy McLean entrance
is at the end of David McLean Drive and the Faurea entrance is off Pitlochry
Road in Faurea Place in Westville North.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The finding of stone and iron age
artifacts in PNR indicates that people of these cultures would have roamed
through the Palmiet River valley long before the arrival of Zulu and later,
European settlers in the area. However, the earliest written accounts, to
date, are the paragraph by Phipson in 1851 (Currey, 1968, P 43), describing
the Gwalagwala Cliff and river, and the two page description in Brooks (1876
Pp 309-310) of the Palmiet valley. The frontispiece of the latter is a coloured
woodcut picture of the Cascade.
Fortunately, in 1968, a small group
of concerned residents pressed the then Westville Town Council to establish
a nature reserve in the Palmiet valley to ensure that the wildlife heritage
and scenic beauty would be spared from development. This has enabled present
and future generations to enjoy what the pioneers had known. The area was
offered to the former Natal Parks Board (now EKZNWL) to manage as a nature
reserve, but this was not accepted, as it was felt that local authorities
should also take responsibility for conservation.
On 6th September 1972, the PNR opened
to the public with a trail for the local councillors and officials. The early
hiking paths were made by scholars from Westville Boys' High School. The Council
became enthusiastic with the concept and, over the years, following the recommendations
of Cottrell (1978 Pp 147-154), expanded PNR from its original 13ha to a viable
small nature reserve of almost 100ha. The management was placed in the hands
of a committee which embraced the local community, councillors and municipal
officials. This Management Committee survives today and, as far as it can
be ascertained, PNR is unique in that it is the only community managed urban
nature reserve in Durban and the Ethekwini area. The Ethekwini Municipality
employs a Manager, who has wider environmental responsibilities, and three
Field Rangers in the PNR. In 1996 the new main entrance at Gwalagwala provided
vastly improved facilities, with parking, display boards and visitor information
in a boma overlooking a pond, a hall for audio-visual presentations and environment
friendly community use, toilets, a braai site and accommodation for Field
Numerous volunteers have, over the
years, assisted with the guided trails, education programmes and other projects,
such as the Westville Lions Club with bridges, a board walk and disabled trail.
Neighbouring urban conservancies take an active interest in PNR. Research
projects in many fields feature prominently. Professor Steven Piper is a world
authority on the Long-tailed Wagtail, as a result of his ongoing research
since 1976 in PNR. The first discovery, by a school boy in the 1970s, of stone
age artifacts and more recent discoveries from the iron age, have lead to
structured archaeological research.
Two exceptionally damaging floods
in 1999 washed away braai sites, a board walk and both pedestrian bridges.
The flood plain was widened, removing most of the former gallery forest that
tended to enclose the river. On the positive side, the main Gwalagwala braai
area has been restored and the more open valley has brought bird species seldom
seen before. This, together with the diverse ecological and wildlife habitats,
its solitude qualities and its 15kms of hiking paths, offer many educational
and recreational opportunities for scholars, residents and visitors from further
afield. It is thus an important component of DMOSS.
1.3 PHYSIOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND
1.3.1 Topography: It occupies a steep valley
with rugged krantzes, which enhances it as a spectacular scenic destination.
The undulating, steep topography has already been alluded to in Clause 1.1.1.
The highest altitude in the PNR is 240 m which is the boundary on summit of
the Outspan Cliff, while the altitude of the south-western end of North Cliff
is 228 m, the Faurea entrance is 214 m and the gate in the Dissotis wetland
is 212 m. The Palmiet River is 172 m where it enters PNR in the west and 87
m where it leaves it at the eastern boundary, this being the lowest point
in the PNR. The account in Dunlevey (1999) states that a massive 120 m drop
in sea level, approximately 20 000 years ago, created a sudden increase in
gradient which caused the rivers to cut down into the existing channels, resulting
in the incised meanders of the present day Palmiet River valley, where a relatively
small river occupies a deep and highly sinuous gorge.
1.3.2 Drainage and hydrological regime: The
Palmiet River rises in the Kloof escarpment, flows through the Pinetown-New
Germany industrial area, a source of occasional river pollution, and thereafter
is the key drainage feature of the PNR. It enters the Mgeni River as a tributary
in Springfield. Three small, short tributary streams within the PNR enter
the river; the Umthini on the western boundary from the south and the Nsimba
and Mvuzi from the north. As the Palmiet River catchment is largely urbanised
with impervious hard surfaces that increase run-off, the hydrological regime
is typical of an urban river hydrograph (See Diagram 1). The 4,5 m flood of
February 1999, when 305 mm of rain was recorded in the PNR in 14 hours, caused
much damage to the Reserve. This and a second heavy flood in December of the
same year, resulted in the flood plain of the river being increased to about
three times its former width.
Dunlevey (1999) identifies the sandstones of the Natal Group, formed about
600 million years ago, as the main rock in the PNR. Within these sedimentary
deposits are coarser pebbles, including quartz, jasper and chert, that can
be found, as a result of the weathering of the sandstones, along the river
bed. To the east, including the PNR Dwyka Cliff, are the molten glacial tillite
deposits of the Dwyka Group from the ice age of about 350 million years ago.
With the break up of Gondwanaland some 200 million years ago, magma, trapped
within fractures, solidified to form dolerite, which has subsequently been
exposed by erosion. A doleritic dyke is now visible in the Palmiet River bed
near the Nsimba Stream and dolerite rocks can be found washed downstream of
The bulk of the soils of the PNR are derived from the sandstones of the Natal
Group. They are prone to erosion when disturbed, hence the need to ensure
that hiking paths do not cause a problem in this regard. Cole (1961) describes
them broadly as gley-like podsolic soils of the eastern coastal belt, where
high temperatures promote rapid decomposition of organic matter and which
are generally leached on account of heavy thunderstorms. According to Emery
(pers. com., 2000), the soils down to about 0,15 m are moist, light brown,
firm silty medium sand and this is repeated to a depth of 1 m with the addition
of pinkish brown weathered sandstone fragments. In researching the Faurea
woodland, De Smidt (1987) describes them as characteristically sandy with
a high permeability which encourages rapid percolation. She classifies the
soil form, using the binomial system for South Africa, as Hutton, Glenrosa
or Mispah and the series to be Hutton, Platt or Mispah. The A horizon, with
a clay content of 0 - 15%, varied in depth from 25 - 45 cm and the B horizon,
with a clay content of 0 - 30%, had a depth variation of 35 - 90 cm.
Temperature, humidity (in a Stevenson Screen) and rainfall (using a standard
5" gauge) , and other weather conditions, have been recorded at 8 Old
New Germany Road, opposite PNR, since 1968. Unfortunately they have not been
averaged to give a more acceptable overall picture. As this station is located
at an altitude of 223 m, it would be advantageous to record temperatures in
the valley, as local variations can be marked, with temperatures that can
be 5?C lower, being recorded when cold air drainage conditions are present
in the valley. On one occasion there was frost in the valley.
The range of maximum and minimum
temperatures for January and July are given:
January min.14?C - 23?C, max. 17?C - 36?C; July min. 9?C - 17?C, max. 14?C
Berg winds, that precede cold front conditions in winter, are responsible
for the high July maximum, similar to that in January and also low humidity
readings below 30%. The highest temperature recorded at this station is 38?C
and the lowest is 7?C and 8?C on another occasion. Humidity ranges from 60%
to 95% in January and 25% to 90% in July.
In 2002 the average annual rainfall
over a 34 year period at a station at 11 Nordene Road, 0,4 km from PNR, was
1036 mm. It is possible that this figure would be lower in the valley. On
average, the bulk of the rainfall occurs during the summer, but heavy rainfall
episodes can occur at any time of the year.
1.4 BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
1.4.1 Vegetation: Refer to Map - depicting the
chief plant communities.
PNR, in the Acocks (1975) classification, falls within the Coastal Tropical
Forest of KZN. However, this represents a broad picture which is not relevant
considering the present vegetation communities, which have been highly modified
by human intervention, found in PNR. Cottrell (1978 Pp 21 & 85) identifies
four main plant communities, namely, (1) lithophytic and cliff-top communities;
(2) grass with bush clumps, to which must be added the Faurea saligna woodland
on the Grass Ridge spur; (3) scrub and (4) forest. The numerous cliffs in
PNR provide a home for many interesting lithophytic species, ranging from
lichens and mosses to trees which survive in soil pockets created from weathering
rock processes and the accumulation of organic material. Although not a rare
species elsewhere, the Faurea saligna woodland stands are unique in the Ethekwini
area, the only other known occurrence being in New Germany Nature Reserve.
The grass communities are probably relics of what were undoubtedly more widespread
distributions in the past. Those that are not managed with fire have diminished
markedly since the 1975 and 1977 aerial photographs, upon which the PNR plant
community map is based. The grass managed areas are noted in Clause 3.3.1.
Scrub, being in a state of transition from grass to forest, is the most dominant
vegetation group found throughout the PNR. Mature forest is not widespread,
with patches scattered throughout the PRN, but the most extensive community
is below the Outspan Cliff in the Phansikhumula area. Smaller patches occur
below the Nkawu Cliff and on the southern slopes of the Grass Ridge spur.
By far the best and largest forest is that on the southern campus slopes of
the UD-W Conservancy. The former gallery forests that overhung most parts
of the Palmiet River have disappeared in the 1999 floods, but trees still
thrive along the edge of the widened flood plain.
1.4.2 Bird, mammal, reptile and
other life: The abundant bird life, with over
150 species, and the list of over 170 trees, make the Nature Reserve a desirable
destination for wildlife enthusiasts. However, as mammals have not been introduced
into the PNR, these are yseldom seen by visitors. Vervet monkeys are the most
numerous of the mammals, but these are also not often visible, as they disappear
during the day in search of more easily secured food in residential areas.
Snakes, although seldom seen, are plentiful, both in numbers and species variety,
while the monitor lizard is perhaps the most visible reptile. Refer to Appendix
2 for lists of wildlife in PNR.
1.5 LEGAL STATUS
1.5.1 Presently, the PNR has no
legal nature reserve status and is zoned public open space in the local authority
town planning scheme.
1.5.2 On 4 December 1992, a Site
of Conservation Significance was granted to the PNR by EKZNWL.
1.5.3 The problem of conferring
official nature reserve status on municipal land by the Province of KZN was
highlighted by Cottrell (1978, Pp 113, 114, 154-156). In this regard, the
then Cape Province offered not only a higher legal status for municipal nature
reserves, but also financial support.
1.6 FINANCIAL RESPONSIBLY FOR
1.6.1 As a local authority nature
reserve, the Ethekwini Municipality shall be responsible for the financing
of the PNR. It shall finance the staff salaries, capital expenditure and maintenance
of buildings and infrastructure.
1.6.2 The previous Town Council
awarded the PNRMANCOM a Grant-in-aid, for use on development projects and
expenses. It is recommended that this grant is re-instated, considering the
free professional expertise from scientists and other specialists that is
given to the Ethekwini Municipality voluntarily in the management of PNR.
1.6.3 All income from guided trails,
braai charges and Frank Farrer Hall charges shall be paid into PNRMACOM finances
to cover PNRMANCOM expenses and to be used for development projects. Control
of PNRMANCOM finance is covered by Clause 9 of the PNRMANCOM Constitution
attached in Appendix 3 and the PNR Development Fund Constitution in Appendix
Prionium serratum (Palmiet plant) and Motacilla clara (Long-tailed Wagtail)
are the emblems of the PNR. The latter is depicted on the green epaulettes
used by the staff.
2.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT
(Approved by PMNRMANCOM on 01/09/1994)
- 2.1.1 To recognise that the Palmiet Nature
Reserve (PNR) is part of a wider Durban Metropolitan Open Space System
(DMOSS) with which it is intricately linked, especially through river
systems and prospective hiking trails.
- 2.1.2 To preserve a witness area of the
former natural heritage of a small part of Westville for future generations.
In pursuing this aim, the PNR provides an important open space function
to reduce the impact of urban development and to provide passive recreational
and educational opportunities for visitors.
- 2.1.3 To ensure the effective ecological
conservation and management for the maintenance of biodiversity of indigenous
flora and fauna, including avifauna, reptiles, insects and aquatic species,
and their habitats in terms of the 'wise use of biological resources'
(1) allowing the natural evolution
of indigenous species
(2) implementing intervention management where desirable, e.g. fire to maintain
grassland species, culling or translocation
(3) an ongoing programme of the removal
of alien species, including sources from outside the PNR
(3) monitoring of the riverine system against degradation and pollution from
sources beyond the PNR.
To encourage optimal public usage,
to justify the setting aside of valuable urban land, by means of promoting:
(1) passive recreational opportunities,
such as walking and informal nature study, by allowing carefully regulated
but unrestricted access to the PNR on a properly laid out and maintained system
of footpaths ensuring that, where possible, solitude qualities are preserved.
(2) an ongoing education programme including the provision of guided and self-guided
trails, publications and encouraging educational institutions to use the PNR
(3) regular monitoring of the use by the public and the implementation of
appropriate management strategies to ensure that excessive human impacts do
not have deleterious ecological consequences or destroy the solitude qualities
that are expected in a nature reserve.
2.1.5 To engage in and encourage
ongoing research to monitor the success of the ecological management, to gain
insight into appropriate management strategies and to further knowledge of
the operation of ecological systems, including the collection, under permit,
of base line data ensuring that any change in management is duly recorded
in the Management Plan.
2.1.6 To ensure that the PNR Manager
is guided by the Management Plan and the PNR Management Committee (PNRMANCOM),
that outside specialist advice is obtained when necessary and that adequate
documentation of management and decisions are kept.
2.1.7 To maintain good relations
with neighbouring residents and properties and to encourage them to exist
in harmony with the aims and objectives of the PNR.
2.2 MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE
Preamble: The community based Management Committee (PNRMANCOM) could provide
a model as to how local communities can serve in the management of local authority
2.2.1 PNRMANCOM shall have elected
members and appointed members, as indicated in the Constitution that has been
approved by the local authority and printed in Appendix 3.
2.2.2 The meetings, office bearers and members, their election and their duties,
chief of which is the formulation of the management strategies in the PNR,
are outlined in this Constitution.
2.2.3 The finances of the PNRMANCOM
shall be controlled by the constitution of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Development
Fund, which is attached in Appendix 4.
2.3 SUPPORT GROUPS
2.3.1 A group, the Friends of the
Palmiet, also known as the Palmiet Environmental Society,
open to supporters of the PNR, shall be controlled by a constitution, independent
of the PNRMANCOM.
2.3.2 In terms of the PNRMANCOM
Constitution (Appendix 2, Clause 6.3), FOUR members of the Friends of the
Palmiet shall be elected, at the AGM, to the PNRMANCOM.
2.3.3 An Annual General Meeting
shall be jointly organised by the Friends of the Palmiet an the PNRMANCOM.
2.3.4 This group may also extend
its sphere of activities to include the Palmiet River Catchment.
2.3.5 The Palmiet Meanderings
journal or news sheet, published jointly by the PNRMANCOM and Friends of the
Palmiet, should cover information, research projects and items of interest
relating to the PNR and the Palmiet River Catchment. Copies should be filed
and placed at the Bergtheil Museum, Westville, for the dissemination of information
on PNR for research purposes (see Clause 9.5).
2.3.6 It is useful that PNR information
is given on a web site (pers.com. Read, 2003) that is regularly updated. The
present site is:
2.3.7 Each of the EKZNWL registered
urban conservancies adjacent to PNR, namely Westville Conservancy, Loerie
Park Conservancy, Umvuzi Conservancy, and UD-W Conservancy, shall be represented
on the PNRMANCOM. See Clause 6.1 of PNRMANCOM Constitution in Appendix 3.
Refer to map
2.4 LAW ENFORCEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION
2.4.1 The PNR Manager shall ensure
that relevant City Bylaws and KZN Nature Conservation Management Act (9 of
1999) are enforced in the PNR.
2.4.2 The PNR Manager shall also ensure that the contents of this Management
Plan are effectively implemented.
2.5 ROLE OF THE FIELD RANGERS
The following are suggested guidelines of what is expected of the Field Rangers
in their work duties in the PNR:
2.5.1 The Field Rangers shall work
under the guidance of the PNR Manager.
2.5.2 Ideally, it is suggested that
the Field Rangers work flexi time, including over weekends. This is to extend
the hours during which there is a Field Ranger on duty in the PNR throughout
the period of day light. Local Authority hours of work are unsuited for the
adequate control of nature conservation areas. Flexi time was successfully
achieved when the former Wildlife Society employed the Field Rangers in the
2.5.3 Their prime role is to patrol
on an ongoing basis in order to check the state of the PNR particularly relating
to ecological and recreational problems. They are expected to report their
observations to the PNR Manager on a regular basis.
2.5.4 The following are suggested
additional duties that the Field Rangers are required to do:
(1) Be of assistance to visitors to the PNR.
(2) Conduct guided trails, especially in isiZulu, including after hours, when
(3) Check that the hiking paths and river crossing stepping stones are in
good order and passable.
(4) Patrol every path and check each river crossing on a regular basis, at
least weekly, but preferably more frequently.
(5) Assist with the path maintenance, in accordance with Clause 6.3.8.
(6) Check that the river crossing stepping stones are still in place after
periods of river flooding.
(7) Remove litter from areas used by visitors, i.e. at entrances and the parking
area, along paths, at river crossings, at braai and picnic sites and in the
vicinity of the Frank Farrer Centre and Hall.
(8.1) Set up the braai equipment and materials for visitors who book and pay
for a site.
(8.2) Be on duty at Gwalgwala between 11h30 and 13h30 on weekends and holidays
to handle any requesting for a braai, provided the site has not been previously
(8.3) Control the unauthorised use of the braai sites.
(9) Assist with the invasive alien
plant removal programme, especially in supervising teams when used for this
2.6 HONORARY FIELD RANGERS
2.6.1 A team of volunteer Field
Rangers may be appointed to assist with the patrolling of the PNR and some
of the tasks set out under the clauses in 2.5
2.6.2 In order to give such volunteers
the necessary authority and so that they may be identified by visitors, it
is preferable that they wear the epaulettes used by the paid members of the
2.6.3 It is useful if Honorary Field
Rangers report any observations or incidents to the PNR Manager.
2.6.4 Honorary Field Rangers may
be co-opted on to the PNRMANCOM.
2.7 SOCIO-POLITICAL RELATIONSHIPS
2.7.1 The urban location of PNR,
within a predominately residential area, necessitates that the PNRMANCOM should
endeavour to maintain good relationships with neighbours, resolve, where necessary,
conflict and encourage their participation. The largest landowner, UD-W, and
135 residential properties border directly onto PNR and a harmonious relationship
on both sides will engender a considerable support group for the ideals manifested
2.7.2 Where possible, employment,
job creation and empowerment are to be given to local communities.
2.7.3 As the
task of observing every part of the PNR with limited staff is difficult, it
would be useful to approach residents who live adjacent to the PNR and who
have a good view of it, to volunteer to report any unauthorised activity to
the PNR Manager.
2.7.4 Likewise, residents living
on the Palmiet River upstream of PNR, could report serious episodes of river
pollution. See Clause 4.2.
3 ECOLOGICAL CONSERVATION AND
Preamble: This is the prime management
activity in nature conservation areas, and as such, must be accorded prominence
in PNR. Usher (1973, P.204) gives a succinct definition:
Biological conservation is essentially
concerned with the interaction between man and the environment. Fulfilment
of conservation objectives for a biological resource requires the resource's
management in perpetuity on the basis of a sustained production of the resource
or biotic component of the environment and a sustained demand on the resource
or environment by man.
3.1 OVERALL BIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT
3.1.1 The plant biota shall be allowed
to evolve under natural processes, with the following exceptions:
(1) in the case of fire management,
outlined in Clause 3.3, in order to retain, and possibly increase, grass communities,
(2) with the removal of invasive alien plant species - see Clause 3.4,
(3) the management of the Dissotis Wetland - see Clause 3.5.
3.1.2 Apart from selected areas
at the entrances, the vicinity of the Frank Farrer Centre, and the Visitor
Boma at Gwalagwala entrance, no vegetation, including indigenous, may be planted
in or removed from the PNR, except after consultation with the PNR Manager
and the PNRMANCOM.
3.1.3 An approved project is the
experimental reintroduction of Prionium serratum, the Palmiet plant, to the
river by members of the Umvuzi Conservancy ( D'Eathe, 2000 pers. com.). The
area allocated for this research is on the southern flood plain of the Palmiet
River, east of Shaik's Pool, at the C2 crossing of the Ntengu Trail
3.1.4 Every effort shall be made
to remove all alien plants, especially those in the invasive category. Refer
to Clause 3.4 for detailed procedures for the removal of alien plants.
3.1.5 All indigenous bird, insect,
reptile, animal, fish and water biota within the PNR shall be protected. The
introduction or removal of any species is not permitted without consultation
with the PNR Manager and the PNRMANCOM.
3.1.6 MANAGEMENT FOR WAG-TAILS/
3.2.1 It is desirable that the PNR
be enclosed with bonnex type fencing that permits the passage of small animals,
such as mongoose and genet cats, but which precludes dogs and people (except
at official entrances) from entering.
3.2.2 Priority should be given to
fencing those parts of PNR which are adjacent to roads.
3.2.3 Related to Clause 3.2.2, there
is a need to fence from the Welakalula Bridge to the corner of the Frank Farrer
Hall along the short public access path that links Old New Germany Road to
Stanley Teale Road.
3.3 MANAGEMENT OF THE GRASS COMMUNITIES
Clauses 3.3.1 to 3.3.4, with the
exception of Clause 3.3.4 were approved by PNRMANCOM on 01/09/1994)
Refer to Map --. The main grass communities as indicated in aerial photographs
of 1975 and 1977 and the orthophoto map of 1976.
Preamble: Although the grassland
communities in PNR are small and, therefore, hardly viable, the management
of them is highly recommended for the following reasons, highlighted by Le
- The grassland communities add
to the biodiversity offered
- Grasslands are generally poorly represented in the Coastal areas of KZN
and are often the first to succumb to destruction through urban growth and
other development projects.
Butler (1990 pers. com.) and Le
Roux (undated) recommend an interval of 2 years, provided conditions are suitable.
Controlled burns are to be implemented in the grasslands to maintain the vigour
of the grass plants and control woody species. PNR is situated in a high rainfall
area (>800 mm p.a.), its grasslands tend to revert to forest unless managed
accordingly. Fire alone may not be sufficient to control woody species and
it may be necessary to use physical control methods from time to time. Burning
will also maintain the diversity of flowering plants that occur within the
grassland communities. It is recommended that both burning season and fire
intensity be varied annually to avoid repetitive burn conditions.
Burning programmes must take into
account the faunal component of the grassland communities, particularly small
rodents, invertebrates, insects and reptiles. Kern (1981) showed that fire
in the Kruger National Park had an influence on reducing small mammals, which
are important prey species for smaller carnivores and some birds, thereby
ultimately reducing the overall diversity and biomass. He recommended no burning
as the least detrimental strategy but, as burning was necessary for other
reasons, suggested a 3 year cycle and leaving some areas that are never or
seldom burnt. The latter is difficult in a small nature reserve, which lacks
space. Rowe-Rowe, (1983) reported that the absence of fire for more than two
years may cause a drop in species number. Fennessy, (1988) stated that the
low abundance of species at Faurea, and the potentially consequent lowering
of diversity, is a possible indication of this trend in the PNR. His mammal
research coincided with the period where the Faurea grassland was not burned
for 6 years. However it is important to research to effect of burning on the
total species occurrence in PNR. Research by Butler (2000) showed that insect
populations recover after fire through the development of larvae from eggs
that survived the fire and by fleeing the fire front. He found that grasshopper
abundance was lowest in the post burn sites, but that rotational burning allows
for the maintenance of the grasshopper abundance and diversity, thus highlighting
the need for rotating the burn in the fire management.
3.3.1 Location of Grass Communities
The main areas managed for grass
and associated communities are:
(1) Faurea Grassland This is located on the south and east of the sloping
spur extending from Faurea Place and entrance to PNR, as far as the bush and
tree covered steeper valley slopes and cliffs to the east south and west.
For burning management purposes it is divided into:
Block A - the upper portion north of the Nkanekane Trail.
Block B - the lower portion south
of the Nkanekane Trail.
(1) isiKhwehle Grassland Located
on an eastern slope opposite the Ntengu Cliff. The management of this grass
community, showing dereliction in 1976. Tree and bush shall be preserved on
the river flood plain.
(1) Nsimba Grassland This is a remnant
of what was, in terms of variety of grass and associated species, formerly
the best grassland in this portion of the Palmiet River valley, prior to the
development of the Loerie Park town house complex. The management, in conjunction
with those portions remaining in Loerie Park Conservancy, commenced when the
lower portion was incorporated into management by PNR. The PNR portion is
located opposite where the Nsimba stream joins the Palmiet River and to the
east and north of the Loerie Park boundary as far as the pedestrian gate entrance
into PNR. It extends as far as the tree lined dry gully and Phansikhumula
forest in the east and riverine tree belt along the Palmiet River in the north.
(1) The small portion of grassland
in the Dissotis Wetland may be managed if desired. Refer to Clause 3.5.3 under
management of Dissotis Wetland.
(1) The aim is to:
(1.1) maintain these areas as grassland
in order to preserve as many diverse plant and associated communities in the
Reserve as possible,
(1.2) retard the invasion of woody
(1.3) increase the grass species
diversity from the predominance of Aristida junciformis (Ngongoni),
(1.4) preserve the Faurea saligna
savanna in area 1 (see Clause 3.3.4),
(1.5) provide aesthetically pleasing
open vistas to contrast from the predominant bush and forest communities that
dominate most of PNR.
(2) To achieve this aim the following
(2.1) The burning programme shall
take place during the winter or spring period every 2 to 3 years, either pre
or post rain to emulate natural conditions as far as possible. Burning is
dependent upon the presence of sufficient fuel and lack of moisture to provide
a hot burn, failing which the fire will not achieve its objective and will
encourage the invasion of bush species.
(2.2) The burning interval must
not be too great so as not to prevent the shading of desirable species such
as Themeda triandra.
(2.3) Care must be taken to ensure
that a burning interval that is too frequent does not impact on the numbers
of insect and small mammal life associated with grasslands.
(2.4) Prior to an intended burn,
a field inspection involving the PNR Manager and those responsible for grass
management to determine the suitability of conditions for burning, is to take
(2.5) The burning of Blocks A and
B in the Faurea Grassland is to be rotated.
(2.6) Yearly firebreaks in the Faurea
Grassland (see Clause 3.3.3 (1)) are to be cut and burnt before the end of
May to control the spread of unplanned fires throughout the entire area of
(2.7) If it is deemed desirable,
the cutting of woody species, well before a scheduled burn, will provide additional
fuel to set back heavy infestations.
(2.8) An ongoing programme of removing
alien species shall be implemented.
3.3.3 Location of Firebreaks
Refer to Map
(1) Blocks A and B in the Faurea Grassland shall be divided with a fire break.
The former straight-line east-west fire break shall be replaced with one following
the Nkanekane Trail. On the advice of Ward (1974, pers. com.) Care must be
taken to keep fire out of the northern portion of the Nkawu Cliff summit in
Block A, which has rare plant species and, in Block B, the area between the
Ridge and lower eastern Nkawu Trail (now closed) which constitutes an experiment
to test the impact of the lack of fire on Faurea saligna.
(1) If necessary, fire breaks must
be created before a planned burn to protect residential and other property
adjoining PNR. Likewise, areas where fire must be excluded from sensitive
biota, must be similarly protected.
3.3.4 Management of Faurea saligna
In the Faurea Grassland, the Faurea
saligna species, as a member of the protea family, need fire to achieve maximum
survival. The flow diagram, (Cottrell, 1978, P 122) Diagram 2, sums up the
burning strategy relevant for the maintenance of this species and the grass
communities. De Smidt (1987) in researching the impact of fire on this species,
located in Area 1 - the Faurea Grassland, and its seedlings, noted that a
bias in favour of Faurea saligna relative to other woody plants complicates
the management. Burning is necessary to keep the area grassed and free of
other woody plants, but too frequent burns could adversely affect the continued
survival of the Faurea saligna population. She suggests that an interval of
5 to 6 years is necessary for Faurea saligna seedlings to be sufficiently
robust to stand a good chance of surviving fire. This being the case, consideration
will have to be given to excluding, from time to time, areas with appreciable
number of seedlings from fire.
3.3.5 Records and Research
The Management Officer shall keep adequate records of burning management to
enable the assessment of the effectiveness of the programme and research into
its suitability. Regular surveys of the grass communities shall be encouraged
and advice from experts in grass and fire management shall be obtained to
ensure the success of the programme.
3.4 INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT REMOVAL
Preamble: When PNR opened in 1972,
the estimated coverage of invasive alien plants, such as Chromolaena odoratum
and Lantana camara, was up to about 90% in some areas. Through a removal programme
over most of the period since 1972, this has been reduced to below 50% and
considerably less in the older parts of PNR. It is therefore important that
an ongoing removal programme continues to operate.
The use of chemical herbicides was
formerly banned in PNR, but PNRMANCOM ultimatelyconceded that some alien plant
species can only be effectively controlled with their use. Liggitt (1983)
states that physical methods of removal are preferable and that "in conservation
areas the use of herbicides should be avoided if at all possible since these
chemicals may have long-term detrimental effects on the environment. Where
chemical control is necessary, herbicides with little or no residual effect,
such as glyphosate (Roundup) or 2,4-D should be used".
3.4.1 The removal of invasive alien
plants, particularly those listed under category 1 in the National Department
of Agriculture (2000) list of alien invader plants, should be given priority
initially. The ultimate aim should be the elimination of all alien plants
listed. In PNR the following alien plants need to be initially given priority:
Chromolaena odoratum (Triffid weed), Lantana camara (Tickberry), Litsea glutinosa
(Indian laurel), Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Balloon vine), Anredera cordifolia
(Madeira vine), Melia azedarach (Syringa), Ipomoea sp. (Morning glory), Pennisetium
purpureum (Napier fodder) and Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower). A
biological control research programme on Lantana camara seems to have reduced
this species considerably.
3.4.2 Labour intensive physical
removal methods are preferable. Where there are species which are unsuited
to this method (e.g. with Litsea glutinosa), the use of ecologically acceptable
chemical herbicides may, with care, be used. A variety of control methods
for alien plants are available and the best practices are to be implemented
in the PNR. Cut stump treatment using a suitable herbicide shall be applied
to those alien plants most suited for this method of control. The use of foliar
spray is to be limited to certain species and applied under controlled conditions.
The following herbicides may be used as per the specified application:
Chopper - cut stump
Access - cut stump / foliar (residual effect, selective for grasses)
Glyphosate - cut stump / foliar spray (non-selective, non-residual)
Garlon - stem / cut stump / foliar spray
3.4.3 If they are present, it is
preferable to remove seeds to reduce the re-infestation.
3.4.4 Where there are large areas
of a particular species, it is desirable to lessen the re-infestation rate,
by removing plants before they are in seed.
3.4.5 Invariably removal exposes
areas of bare soil and, to combat erosion, plants taken out should be justify
to reduce this possibility. Selected alien species must be removed from the
site for destruction due to re-growth if justify on site, e.g. Anredra cordifolia
3.4.6 After the initial removal,
a follow up programme should be done timeously, as areas exposed for the first
time are usually devoid of vegetation and are therefore prone to heavy re-infestation
by alien species.
3.5 MANAGEMENT OF THE DISSOTIS
Preamble: The Dissotis wetland, so called because of the former abundance
of Dissotis canescens, is the only viable wetland in PNR and should be managed
as such. The wetland occupies the upper or southern portion of the area above
the steep Palmiet valley slope. Unfortunately shading from rapid tree growth
from the time that this was a market garden in the early 1960's, has seen
a drastic decline in Dissotis canescens.
3.5.1 There are two strategies for
the management of the actual wetland: EITHER
(1.1) It is managed for Dissotis canescens, D. phaeotricha and D. princeps
and associated communities, in which case, as the species does not thrive
in shade, trees must be reduced and removed.
(1.2) Should this be the management
preference, trees should be justify along the PNR boundaries in the upper
southern portion to screen residential and other development, OR
(2) it is managed as a swamp forest, in which case tree growth must be encouraged.
3.5.2 The water supply to this wetland
has been reduced as a result of the agricultural drain installed along western
side of Old New Germany Road. In order to recharge it the PNRMANCOM (13/08/2003)
agreed to the experimental tapping of a street drain in Old New Germany Road
adjacent to the PNR, provided that the flow of stormwater is dispersed with
a spreader, that attenuation ponds are constructed and that soil is not eroded.
It will be necessary for street litter, washed via the drain into the PNR,
to be cleared after rainfall.
3.5.3 The intermediate terrace,
above the steep valley slope, may if desired, be managed as a small grassland,
as well as parts of the wetland above it, if the strategy in Clause 3.5.1
(1) is followed. (See Clause 3.3.1.(4) under management of grass communities)
3.5.4 The steep north facing valley
into the Palmiet River flood plain must be justify with its existing bush
and tree plant associations.
4 RIVER AND FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT
4.1 Because the Palmiet River catchment
encompasses large areas of urban development with impervious hard surfaces,
the river is prone to flooding on a regular basis. In order to prevent bank
and flood plain erosion from floods, indigenous riverine and flood plain vegetation
must be conserved and not disturbed. The flood of February 1999 considerably
widened the flood plain, enabling it to cope more adequately with urban hard
surface flood run-off.
4.2 In order to have river pollution
reported to the municipal authorities timeously, it is useful
to encourage volunteers to monitor the quality of the Palmiet River throughout
its length upstream from the PNR.
4.3 Where obstructions that result
from civil engineering works, e.g. the concrete structure, in the Pithi Glade,
that covers the pipelines which replaced those destroyed by the February 1999
flood, care must be taken to ensure that the passage of fish and other water
biota is not impeded. V-shaped notches, to concentrate low water river flow,
or appropriate fish ladders must be provided.
5 ZONING FOR MULTIPLE-USE MANAGEMENT
Preamble: Small nature reserves
which permit multiple-use recreational, educational and other activities,
need to be carefully managed if the quality of the functioning of the biotic
communities is to be maintained. Cottrell (1978, P 139-148) recommended 3
zones, to which is added a fourth zone, suggested by Moll (1975) for the New
Germany Nature Reserve:
Zone 1: area of restricted use
Zone 2: area of moderate use
Zone 3: area of intensive use
Zone 4: service area.
5.1 RESTRICTED USE ZONE
Four areas make up this zone:
1A the Palmiet Wilds located in the eastern part of PNR
1B the southern valley slopes above the Pithi Glade
1C the Mbongokazi area (Lot 381)
1D the Dwyka Cliff remnant of Derby Downs Quarry Nature Reserve.
These areas cover a total of 25 ha or -% of PNR. The restricted use zone shall
be an area where the preservation of wildlife and the provision of nesting
and breeding sites is accorded the highest priority, without significant human
interference. To facilitate this aim:
5.1.1 No hiking paths will be permitted
in this zone and there shall be no path along the Palmiet River downstream
from the Cascade, the only access being boulder hopping, which is a deterrent.
5.1.2 The boundary of Zone 1A has
been adjusted from that advocated by Cottrell (1978), to enable a link hiking
path from the Faurea entrance to the UD-W Conservancy hiking path, through
a Zone 2 corridor along the northern PNR/UD-W boundary. Also the area between
the circular hiking path from the Faurea entrance to the E 18 junction on
the Palmiet/Nkanekane Trail.
5.1.3 To compensate for the loss
of restricted land through the intrusion of hiking paths mentioned in Clause
5.1.2, Zone 1 has been extended into Zone 2 towards the Cascade, east of the
Palmiet/Nkanekane Trail and across the river as far as the link path to the
gate G9 in Albizia Place.
5.2 MODERATE USE ZONE
Three areas, which, at ? ha, make up -% of PNR, are included in this zone:
2A the western part of PNR, including Nsimba and Phansikhumula
2B from the eastern end of Gwalagwala Cliff northwards to the Mvuzi valley
2C the entire Grass Ridge spur, including the area of Lot 380 to the northwest.
Nature enthusiasts and hikers are permitted on walking paths, in adequately
large enough natural areas that display, where possible, varying diversity,
interest and comparative solitude. To achieve this aim:
5.2.1 Apart from the hiking paths,
restricted in terms of ratio of distance to area (see Clause 5.5), the management
emphasis in this zone is placed on the protection of the natural components
and the retention of the natural appearance of the area.
5.2.2 The third zone of intensive
use will hopefully attract some visitors away from this zone, thereby reducing
the number of users.
5.2.3 To facilitate a degree of
solitude, a system of one way circular trail paths could be implemented, provided
that the area is sufficiently wide enough (see Clause 6.3.4).
5.3 INTENSIVE USE ZONE
Three areas are designated for
3A the area at the main Gwalagwala
entrance, including a hide (the boma) with a pond to attract aquatic birds,
the braai and picnic indaba area, the disabled trail, the proposed Gwalagwala
heritage education site, the circular Palmiet Trail to E3 / Ntengu Trail and
the Dissotis wetland.
3B from the David McLean entrance to the Dorothy McLean Bush area below the
Nkawu Cliff. This zone shall not be as developed with a braai site, etc, permitted
at Zone 3A, but includes the features in Clause 5.3.1 and may include suggestions
listed in Clause 5.3.2.
3C the small Cascade rest area with a table and benches and restricted braai
and picnic facilities (see Clause 6.4 1 (2).
These areas are about 6 ha, or -% of PNR, and are designed to encourage many
of the visitors to venture no further than this zone, leaving a large part
of the PNR to the nature enthusiast and those in search of a solitude experience.
A survey by Cottrell (1978, Pp 129 & 206) showed that of the visitors
from the entrance in David McLean Drive and using the Palmiet Trail along
the river, 62% hiked a return distance of about 1 km and 38% the full return
distance of 2,6 km to Cascade. From the main Gwalagwala entrance a large proportion
of visitors walk no more than about 1,2 km which is the return distance to
Mvuzi Falls, but the more difficult path thereafter might deter them. To satisfy
these users within this zone and to encourage them to linger, it is necessary
5.3.1 Provide, for recreation, a
higher density (see Clause 5.5) of circular, one way (if necessary) hiking
paths (see Clause 6.3.4) that are, in total, not a great distance from the
5.3.2 Create educational features
of interest within the zone, e.g. self-guided trails, information boards and
tree identification numbers. Every effort should be made to blend information
boards and features by using colours and materials which blend with the natural
5.3.3 In Zone 3A, the hardened trail
path suitable for the disabled is located in the area adjacent to the car
park and extending to a view site overlooking the Palmiet River and Gwalagwala
Cliff. At this point suitable seating and tables shall be provided.
5.3.4 Appropriate planting to attract
butterflies and the planting of interesting flowering plants in a small portion,
e.g. along the disabled trail, to provide interest, in Zone 3A only.
5.4 SERVICE ZONE: PERIPHERAL
LOCATION OF FACILITIES
In terms of sound practice for conservation areas, particularly in small nature
reserves, the facilities, including buildings, braai sites and other recreational
facilities, should be located on the periphery of PNR (Cottrell,1978 Pp 53-54
& 140 ) in what is termed the Service Zone (Moll, 1975).
5.4.1 This zone shall be located
at the main Gwalagwala entrance to PNR. It accommodates the off street parking
area, information boma, toilets, Frank Farrer Hall and field ranger accommodation.
5.4.2 The Cascade Indaba Place,
which is not peripherally located but within a prime conservation area. Has
been downgraded in terms of Clause 220.127.116.11 .
5.5 HIKING PATH DISTANCE/HECTARE
RATIO IN EACH ZONE
The overall ratio of the distance
of hiking paths to total area in PNR is 0,15 km/ha. It is recommended that
the following ratios be applied in each zone:
Zone 1- no hiking paths. Zone 2 should not exceed 0,2km/ha (actual is ) and
Zone 3 should not exceed 0,4km/ha (actual is ).
6 HUMAN RECREATION MANAGEMENT
Preamble: Apart from the main function
of preserving wild life and a witness area, recreation is the main activity
in PNR, ahead of bird watching and other nature interests. Cottrell (1978,
P 39 &40) showed that 76,4% of respondents participated in recreational
activities, whereas only 23,6% were involved in nature study. Human recreation
is undoubtedly the main management function, particularly in a small nature
reserve like PNR. There is a need to ensure that human impacts do not disrupt
ecosystem and biological processes or detract from solitude qualities that
visitors expect in a nature reserve.
Definition: Recreation, in terms
of what is acceptable in nature conservation, and therefore in PNR, is defined
in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary as the action of recreating, refreshing
or reinvigorating oneself or another by some pleasant occupation, pastime
or amusement. Obviously in a nature reserve only passive recreational activities
are acceptable. Cottrell (1978, P41, 49-50) refers to these as informal activities,
such as walking, canoeing, sailing, climbing, swimming, horse-riding, cycling,
non-competitive fishing, camping, picnicking, photography, art and informal
nature study. In PNR canoeing, sailing and horse-riding are not feasible,
fishing and cycling are not compatible, camping is not available and nature
study is considered under education, therefore walking, photography, art and
picnicking are possible activities.
Preamble: Ideally, for better control of visitors, it is desirable to have
one entrance to a nature reserve. However, in PNR three entrances evolved
as it expanded, each serving specific needs.
6.1.1 The three official entrances,
through which the general public may enter, presently are:
Ge 1 The main Gwalagwala entrance is the newest, located at the end of Old
New Germany Road, providing the necessary services for visitors: adequate
off-street parking, toilets, the Frank Farrer Hall and Field Ranger accommodation.
Ge 2 The Dorothy McLean entrance is located at the end of David McLean Drive.
This was the former main entrance.
Ge 3 The Faurea entrance, located in Faurea Place, off Pitlochry Road, serves
Westville North and the UD-W.
6.1.2 It is highly desirable that
the PNRMANCOM consider having only one open access for visitors, namely that
at Gwalagwala. The other 2 entrances could be provided with locked gates,
through which local residents, trail leaders and UD-W staff could secure access
as in Clause 6.1.4.
6.1.3 Visitors may also enter or
leave the PNR at the point where the Palmiet Trail crosses the north-eastern
boundary at the UD-W Conservancy.
6.1.4 Where other gates are required
for maintenance access, they shall be kept locked at all times. Neighbouring
residents may apply for a key, having made a once off payment, to gain access
for purposes of visiting the PNR. The locked gates are located as follows:
Gl 1 upper Stanley Teale Road, Gl 2 Loerie Park, GL 3 lower Stanley Teale
GL 4 lower Old New Germany Road on access path to Welakalula Bridge,
GL 5 Denham Place, GL 6 upper Old New Germany Road, GL 7 Sterling Place,
GL 8 vehicle gate at end of Faurea Place, GL 9 Elston Place, GL 10 Albizia
6.2.1 At entrances:
(1) At the motor entrance to car park, Gwalagwala main entrance:
Palmiet Nature Reserve
? Visitor parking. Reserved for Nature Reserve users.
Other users may be prosecuted.
Nature Reserve open from *(sunrise to sunset)
(*changed in 2003 to specific times) *06h00 - 18h00
(1) At all the visitor entrances to PNR: The wording, in English, isiZulu
and Afrikaans, shall be as follows:
Welcome to Palmiet Nature Reserve
The destruction of fauna and Flora and the lighting of fires is prohibited.
Persons using the Reserve do so at their own risk. *Right of admission is
(*i.e. to those interested in wild
life, walking or picnicking in designated areas - this wording is not included
on the boards)
Idolodha lase Ethekwini
Mamkelekile Esiqiwini Sase Palmiet
Akuvumelekile ukumbulala izilwane nokubaswa izimbali na kuphi nje ukonela
phansi. Nokubaswa kwemililo. Abantu abasembensiza lendayo bakwenza ngendlela
engaphephile. Imvume yokungena lapha reserved.
Welkom na Palmiet Natuurreservaat
Die beskading of verwydering van diere of plante word streng verbode. Persone
wat van hierdiereservaat gebruikmaak, doen dit op eie risiko. Toegang word
Symbolic diagrams to indicate what
is allowed and what is not allowed in PNR:
Permissible:  Hiking  Braais - with the words: booking essential 
Picnics  Bird watching.
Not permissible, with the symbol crossed out:  Running  Dogs - even
 Littering  Bicycles.
Bicycles includes all bikes mentioned
in Clause 6.3.5.
(1) For the information of visitors
at the main Gwalagwala entrance:
(3.1) The direction to Frank Farrer
(3.2) The direction to the Boma where visitor information concerning guided
trails, educational group programmes and braai site costs is given.
(3.3) The direction to the Gwalagwala Indaba Place. Indicate that it must
be booked and the fee paid - give a phone number for this purpose.
(3.4) Trail destinations and distances. Also information concerning the trail
names and colours, trail junction numbers, river stepping stone crossing numbers
and a statement that hikers must keep strictly to the paths and avoid taking
short cuts between zig-zags on steep paths, as the soils are susceptible to
(3.5) A map showing the PNR and the trail paths, with their names and colours.
(1) At locked gates located in the
fenced areas and at the entrance from University of Durban-Westville Conservancy:
Palmiet Nature Reserve
Esiqiwini Sase Palmiet
Entry is subject to the regulations displayed at the main entrances to Palmiet
6.2.2 At braai and picnic sites
Refer to Clause 6.4.4 for the wording
required for particular sites.
6.3 HIKING PATHS, THEIR LAYOUT
Preamble: A good system of hiking
paths is essential for the provision of recreation and education and education
activities and for patrolling and the overall management. There are - km of
hiking paths in PNR and a further - km in the UD-W Conservancy, giving a total
of - km.
6.3.1 The density of hiking paths
in km/ha in each of the usage zones is given in Clause 5.5.
6.3.2 The approved paths are indicated
in Map -, which also gives the path junction, river crossing, entrance and
locked gate numbers.
6.3.3 The paths shall be colour
coded as follows: The Palmiet Trail - blue, Ntengu Trail - magenta, Nkawu
Trail - green, Ridge Trail - red, Nkanekane Trail - yellow, Nsimba Trail -
orange and link trails, e.g. to lock-up gates, white. The main path, the Palmiet
Trail, largely follows the river and links each part of the PNR from the west
to the east.
6.3.4 In order to offer a greater
extent of solitude for hikers, a series of circular, one way paths, as shown
on Map -, could enable the use of different routes on the return journey and
eliminate the presence other hikers walking in the opposite direction.
6.3.5 Bicycles, mountain bikes,
scramblers and motor bikes are not permitted as they cause excessive erosion
6.3.6 Care should be taken to ensure
that the gradient of paths is not too steep as the soils in PNR being prone
6.3.7 Where paths are unavoidably
steep, suitable protection with anti-erosion logs, should be placed across
6.3.8 Field Rangers and others responsible
for path maintenance, should check that:
(1) anti-erosion gullies are not
(2) paths are easily negotiable in terms of over growth and head clearance.
In this regard it is recommended that about 1 metre on each side of the 1
metre path width is kept clear of rampant alien plants, such as Chromolaena
odoratum and Lantana camara and also the indigenous Dalbergia obovata, where
these occur, to prevent the rapid closure of paths and
(3) stepping stone river crossings are easily usable.
6.4 BRAAI AND PICNIC SITES
Preamble: Braai and picnic sites,
in terms of Clause 5.4, should be located at the periphery of PNR.
6.4.1 At the present time there
are 2 sites:
(1) the Gwalagwala Indaba Place
at the main entrance, located ideally in a peripheral area in a secluded site
next to the river with the towering Gwalagwala Cliff dominating the vista,
(2) the Cascade Indaba Place, which, because it is located away from the periphery
of the PNR and after severe damage in the 1999 floods, has been downgraded.
Cottrell (1978, P 143) recommended that the use of this site be discontinued.
In terms of resolutions (Field Meeting 20/03/1999, PNRMANCOM 23/08/2000 item
4.3.2 and 08/11/2000 item 4.3), because of the long tradition of it being
a venue for night trails, it may only be used under special conditions, as
stated below in Clauses 6.4.2, 6.4.3 and 18.104.22.168. The only permanent fixture
is the David Everett Memorial benches and table, which offers hikers a rest
and refreshment venue.
6.4.2 Each braai site may only be
used by one group at a time, provided that it has been previously booked and
paid for, according to the scale of charges determined by PNRMANCOM and displayed
in the visitor boma at the main Gwalagwala entrance.
6.4.3 The sites shall be rustic
and, because of unauthorised use, benches shall be portable and only placed
on the site when the requirements in Clause 6.4.2 have been met. The braai
facility at Cascade shall also be portable and removed from the site when
not in use.
(1) at Gwalagwala Indaba place:
Palmiet Nature Reserve
GWALAGWALA INDABA PLACE
This braai and picnic site is reserved
for groups who have booked and paid for its use.
Bookings: Give a phone number for this purpose.
On weekends and public holidays, a Field Ranger will be available between
11h30 and 13h30 to receive payment and to set up the facilities for a braai.
1. Firewood may not be collected
from the Nature Reserve as it has an ecological function in the food chain.
2. Keep away from and do not feed monkeys and other wild life, to ensure that
they feed from natural sources.
3. Remove all litter: bins are not
(2) at Cascade Indaba Place
It is probably better not to draw attention to the Cascade braai and picnic
site, but should it be necessary to have a sign, the wording should be as
Palmiet Nature Reserve
CASCADE INDABA PLACE
This braai and picnic site is reserved for organised groups with a PNR leader
or Field Ranger, and who have booked and paid in advance for its use.
Bookings: phone the PNR Manager (telephone number)
Please note: Include the 3 regulations as for the Gwalagwala site.
6.5 PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE
It is important that a bridge be
reconstructed over the river near the Gwalagwala entrance. This will enable
all weather access at all times into PNR by staff and visitors.
7 EDUCATION MANAGEMENT
Preamble: Despite the predominance
of recreation in PNR, education should, in reality, be the most important
organised activity in PNR. High quality education programmes, focussing on
the natural environment, ecology, environmental issues, geology and culture,
ensure that nature conservation, wild life and the environment are inculcated
in the minds of the community.
7.1 GUIDED AND SELF-GUIDED TRAILS
7.1.1 Regular guided trails should
be offered by a team of voluntary trail leaders who are knowledgeable about
the wildlife, ecology, geology and environmental issues relevant to PNR.
7.1.2 Field Rangers and/or voluntary
trail leaders should be available to guide individuals or groups around the
PNR when requested.
7.1.3 Only one group is to be permitted
in any specific area at a time. Another group may be permitted, provided that
the area that it intends to visit does not overlap with the other group.
7.1.4 Suitable literature should
be available, for sale, to enable visitors to guide themselves around PNR
and to acquire knowledge of the wildlife, ecology, geology and environmental
issues relevant to PNR.
7.1.5 Two self-guided trails should
(1) The existing circular trail
(Schoute-Vanneck, 1985) from Dorothy McLean entrance to Cascade, which needs
to modified to accommodate the changes resulting from the 1999 floods.
(2) A self-guided trail from the main Gwalagwala entrance.
7.1.6 Distinctive numbered marker
posts, which relate to the self-guided trail text, should be located at the
selected places of interest.
7.1.7 Selected trees of interest
should be marked with labels that indicate the SA Tree Number and name in
English, isiZulu and Afrikaans.
7.2 PROGRAMMES FOR SCHOOLS AND
Preamble: Usher (1973, P 269) suggests,
confirmed in Cottrell (1978, Pp 133-134), that nature reserves used for education
(1) have diversity for the demonstration of a wide range of habitats, communities
and species and operative ecological factors;
(2) not be liable to irreparable damage by controlled, but heavy use;
(3) not contain rare features or species which ought to be conserved specifically
for research or similar activities and therefore not accept education groups;
(4) be reasonably assessable to users in urban areas;
(5) have paths and adequate access for the safe and rapid movement of parties;
(6) contain a field museum or similar centre; and
(7) have a qualified warden.
With the exception of Clause (6),
PNR adequately fulfils all these requirements, and therefore should provide
opportunities for local educational institutions. The development of the Gwalagwala
Heritage Site could, in part, meet the criteria given in Clause (6).
7.2.1 As in Clause 7.1.3, only one education group may be booked at a time,
unless the area of operation of a second group does not overlap..
7.2.2 The PNR Manager and other
volunteers must ensure that educational programmes in PNR are available and
suitable for all levels of schools and tertiary institutions. These programmes
should focus on natural, ecological, environmental, geological and cultural
aspects available in PNR.
7.2.3 Introductory visual (and audio-visual,
if available) programmes, should be available for use in the Frank Farrer
Hall, which has blackout facilities (see Clauses in 7.3).
7.2.4 The key educational experience
must be in the PNR itself, where the participants should be exposed to practical
observation and fieldwork activities, preferably in small groups, with sufficient
facilitators to guide them. Appropriate work or guide sheets should be available
for this purpose.
7.2.5 The PNR Manager, or his designated
substitute, should liaise with teachers or educationalists desiring specific
programmes and work or guide sheets that relate to their particular school
or college studies.
7.3 FRANK FARRER HALL
7.3.1 The Frank Farrer Hall, which
was donated by Frank Farrer for community use, may only be used for environmental
friendly and educational uses, because of its sensitive location in the PNR.
7.3.2 Blackout facilities, projection
equipment and a screen enable this facility to be used for audio-visual educational
7.3.3 Suitable display material
and collections, e.g. geology specimens, should be available to enhance education
7.3.4 Persons or groups wishing
to make use of it, must be book and pay, if required, for it in advance through
the PNR Manager.
7.4 CULTURAL EMPHASIS: THE GWALAGWALA
7.4.1 The discovery of artifacts
at Gwalagwala which indicate Stone and Iron Age occupation, enables the existing
educational programmes, focussing on the natural environment, to be expanded
to incorporate archaeological, historical and cultural dimensions, thereby
creating a holistic learning environment for the learner. The interpretation
of knowledge from the archaeological research at the site should be appropriately
incorporated in the development of these education programmes.
7.4.2 Visual, and audio-visual programmes
should be developed for use in the Frank Farrer Hall to introduce learners
and groups to the theme before visiting the Heritage site.
7.4.3 The dissemination of information,
on waterproof boards, about the people who inhabited the area should be available
at the site. Apart from the iron age, the stone age should also be included,
as artifacts of the latter have also been found elsewhere in PNR.
7.4.4 Practical, 'hands-on' activities
should be available for scholars and education groups at the site, e.g. a
simulated archaeological dig to stimulate learners.
7.4.5 Casual access to the site
is not possible. Booking is therefore essential, to ensure that an interested
group can gain access and be accompanied by a PNR Field Ranger or PNR volunteer.
8 CULTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL
Preamble: Located at the base of
the Gwalagwala Cliff, the discovery of iron age artifacts renders this site
as an important venue for interested visitors and educational programmes related
to prehistory cultures. Lange (2003) has emphasised the cultural heritage
and community based educational possibilities of the site, the implementation
and management of which is outlined in the Clauses in 7.4. AMAFA has confirmed
that a full investigation at the site as well as in PNR is justified.
8.1 ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE
8.1.1 The PNRMANCOM has identified
the need for research and development at the site, including a thorough archaeological
investigation to be done by qualified archaeologists and the keeping of a
visual record of the survey
8.1.2 In conjunction with AMAFA,
PNRMANCOM is to develop management guidelines for the site, including:
-principles, policies and objectives for the management of the site
-utilisation of the site
-monitoring of the site
-survey and research.
8.1.3 Protection of the site and
visitor access: it is recommended that the site be fenced with a lockup gate
to combat vandalism. Access should be organised by booking, to ensure that
an interested group can enter and be accompanied by a PNR Field Ranger or
8.1.4 Access to this site will be
enhanced by the construction of a pedestrian bridge over the river (see Clause
8.2 ARCHAEOLOGICAL ARTIFACTS
8.2.1 Any archaeological artifacts found in PNR shall remain the property
of the PNR.
8.2.2 They shall be properly recorded
in a register and the area they were discovered is to be marked on a map.
8.2.3 All PNR archaeological artifacts
shall be housed for safe keeping in the Bergtheil Museum, Westville.
Preamble: PNR is fortunate that
many research projects have been undertaken over the years, the
most notable being the ongoing work conducted on the Long-tailed Wagtail by
Prof. Steven Piper. Important decisions concerning management can accrue through
well structured scientific evaluation.
9.1 RESEARCH POSSIBILITIES
It is important that research projects be encouraged in PNR. These may take
the form of:
9.1.1 ongoing research which relates
directly to the PNR and its management strategy and/or
9.1.2 research of a wider nature,
linked to a wildlife, ecological or environmental aspect in PNR.
Researchers shall register their
project with the PNR Manager on the prescribed application form in duplicate,
one for the applicant and the other for the PNR Manager. It shall request
(1) Name and status of researcher
and date of application
(2) Address and telephone number(s) and email address if available
(3) Topic of research and expected time scale for completion
(4) Reason for the research, e.g. for fulfilment of a degree
(5) Brief synopsis of methodology to be employed
(6) The applicant must indicate whether there will be any removal of specimens,
fauna or flora, from PNR. Permission may be granted on individual merits.
(7) Special conditions (space to be justify for PNR Manager to state these)
(8) Signature of applicant and of
(9) The statement: A copy of the research report must be handed to the Manager
of the Palmiet Nature Reserve is to be printed at the end of the application
9.3 ACCESS TO REPORTS AND RESOURCES
9.3.1 The researcher must supply
a copy of his final research report or document to the PNR Manager. The Manager
shall make any research report received available to other researchers or
interested persons, on request.
9.3.2 All research documents handed
to the PNR Manager, shall ultimately be placed in the PNR archives, housed
in the Bergtheil Museum in Westville.
9.3.3 Research papers relating to
the PNR should, where possible, be included in the Palmiet Meandering
journal (See Clause 2.3.5).
9.3.4 It might
assist researchers to establish a herbarium of flora found in PNR. It should,
however, be noted that a comprehensive herbarium exists at UD-W, in which
case it would be prudent to ensure that the PNR flora is represented in this
10.1 USE OF isiZULU
10.1.1 isiZulu should be used wherever
possible and/or wherever appropriate in the naming of places and features
10.1.2 Guided Trails should be conducted
in isiZulu when required. Where possible, literature should be available in
The floodlighting of cliffs in the
PNR by adjacent residents is not permitted (PNRMANCOM 13/08/2003). It must
be appreciated that it is a privilege to live in close proximity to a natural
area and that, as these cliffs are home to wildlife, a responsible approach
should be exercised in this regard.
Most of the cliffs in PNR, with
development on their summits, have been used for the disposal of rubble, particularly
that generated by building contractors, and household waste. Every effort
should be made to trace the origin of this junk so as to request that the
person responsible remove it.
11 THE KEEPING OF RECORDS AND
11.1 Records: The PNR Manager shall
keep records of the implementation of the management programme, research and
experimentation in PNR.
11.2 The records are to be ultimately
placed in the PNR archives for future reference by researchers and interested
11.3 Archives: All historical documents
relating to the PNR, including PNRMANCOM minutes, reports, research documents
and reports, photographs, newsletters, articles and newspaper reports, shall
be appropriately preserved for safe keeping in the PNR archives.
11.4 The archives are housed for
safe keeping at the Bergtheil Museum, Westville, where they shall be made
available, on request, to interested persons researching or requiring information
on the PNR.
12 FUTURE EXPANSION OF PNR
There are not many opportunities
to increase the present size of PNR, as there are not many sizeable open space
areas justify for this purpose. The only possible prospects are:
12.1 An area to the west of Loerie
Park and the Umthini Stream, where a future subdivision could result in endowment
land being added to PNR.
12.2 Negotiations should be initiated
to encourage the transfer of the forested southern slope of the University
of Durban-Westville, which is maintained in a natural state as part of its
Conservancy, into the PNR for the following reasons:
(1) the land is steep and of little
or no use for the future expansion of the University campus,
(2) the forest is perhaps the best in this portion of the Palmiet valley,
if not in the entire valley, and would be a tremendous asset to PNR,
(3) it would enable the isolated Dwyka Cliff, an endowment from the Derby
Downs development, to become an integral part of PNR, and
(4) the PNR maintains, on behalf of the University Conservancy, the hiking
trail path through this area.
(5) Should this area be added to
PNR, the University must be assured that access is available to this area
for staff and students for educational and research purposes.
12.3 Although already part of PNR,
the isolated Mbongokazi area should be actively managed and the PNRMANCOM
decide how it is to be managed, either it:
(1) remains a Zone 1 restricted use area, or it
(2) becomes a Zone 2 moderate use area, in which case, negotiation will have
to take place with the University of Durban-Westville to enable a link path
to be made to connect it to PNR. This could extend to the attractive Mbongokazi
Acocks, JPH 1975 Veld types of South
Africa Botanical Research Institute, No. 40, Pretoria.
Brooks, H 1876 Natal: A history
and description of the Colony Reeve, London.
Butler, S 2000 An assessment of
the response of grasshoppers to a rotational burning programme on a coastal-bushveld
grassland Research in Palmiet Nature Reserve, Westville.
Cole, M 1961 South Africa Methuen,
Cottrell, M J 1978 An assessment
of the value of a small nature reserve, with particular reference to the Palmiet
Nature Reserve, Westville, Natal
M.A. in Environmental Studies thesis, University of Cape Town.
Cottrell, M J 2001 Degradation and
rehabilitation of rivers, with reference to the Palmiet River, an urban river
west of Durban PNR field study prepared for UD-W geography students.
Currey, RN 1968 Letters and other
writings of a Natal Sheriff, Thomas Phipson, 1815 - 1876 Oxford University
Press, Cape Town.
De Smidt, S 1987 The structure and
dynamics of Faurea saligna Harv. stands in the Palmiet Nature Reserve, Westville,
Natal B.Sc. (Hons.) degree in Botany, UD-W.
Dunlevey, J 1999 Geology of the
Palmiet Nature Reserve University of Durban-Westville.
Fennessy, ST 1988 An assessment
of the impact of fire on the small mammal population of the Palmiet Nature
Reserve University of Durban-Westville.
Kern, NG 1981 The influence of fire
on populations of small mammals of the Kruger National Park Koedoe 24, Pp
125 - 157.
Le Roux, NP u/d Conservation of
the grasslands of the Umtamvuna Nature Reserve Includes the importance of
coastal grasslands. Undated, Natal Parks Board.
Lange, M 2003 A community based
education project, emphasising cultural heritage This relates to PNR. Westville.
Liggitt, B 1983 The invasive alien
plant Chromolaena odorata, with regard to its status and control in Natal
Institute of Natural Resources, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, P.21.
Link, DM 1985 A management plan
for the New Germany Nature Reserve
Borough of New Germany.
Moll, EJ (Ed.) 1975 A report on
the general ecological status of the New Germany Commonage, and some recommendations
for the future development and use of the area Trustees of the Commonage,
National Dept. 2000 List of alien
invader plants It has 3 categories: 1- must be removed,
of Agriculture 2 - may be grown under controlled conditions, 3 - may not be
Rowe- 1983 Fire and Wildlife. Grasslands
in Wildlife Management Cedara,
Rowe, RT Grassland Research Society.
Schoute- 1985 Palmiet Nature Reserve
Vanneck, CA Palmiet Publications, Westville.
Schmitz, PMU1997 The development
of an urban component of the ACRU model Water
& De Villiers, G du T Research Commission, Pretoria.
Usher, M B 1973 Biological management
Chapman and Hall, London, esp. Pp 299 - 302 & 307 - 315.
Butler, S 1990 Discussion on interval
of fire for the maintenance of grass communities. S Butler is the PNR Manager.
D'Eathe, L 2000 The re-introduction
of Prionium serratum (Palmiet) into the Palmiet River catchment - a project
of the Umvuzi Conservancy, of which L D'Eathe is the former Chairman.
Emery, N 2000 N Emery is a soil
Read, CS 2003 The Palmiet Nature
Reserve web site. CS Read is a member of the PNR.
Ward, CJ 1974 Grassland management in Palmiet Nature Reserve. CJ Ward was
a Senior Lecturer in Botany at the University of Durban-Westville and a former
member of PNRMANCOM.
APPENDIX 1: LOT NUMBERS AND POINT
TO POINT DESCRIPTION OF
PALMIET NATURE RESERVE
The PNR occupies the following Lot
numbers, with size of each and date when included in PNR:
Lot 3094; R / 5 / 1255; 6 / 1254; Rem 1253; Lot 380, 13,2 ha, 1972; 1 / 192;
2 / 192;
R / 192, 0.7 ha; Lot 417, 21,5ha; R / 3011; R / 1240, 3,2 ha; 10 / 3 / 2661;
11 / 3 / 2661;
12 / 5 / 2661; 13 / 6 / 2661; 7 / 2661; R / 1261, 1.2 ha; 2 / 1262; 1 / 1262;
1 / 1263; 1272;
River Reserve 1288; 13 / 6 / 166; 12 / 5 / 166; 11 / 4 / 166; 10 / 3 / 166
'De facto' - excluded from application:
4/1291 Loerie Park and 2920 (Albizia)
APPENDIX 1.2 POINT TO POINT DESCRIPTION OF PALMIET NATURE RESERVE
APPENDIX 2: LISTS OF WILDLIFE IN THE PALMIET NATURE RESERVE
APPENDIX 2.1 LIST OF TREES
APPENDIX 2.2 LIST OF GRASSES
APPENDIX 2.3 LIST OF FLOWERS
APPENDIX 2.4 LIST OF FUNGI
APPENDIX 2.5 LIST OF MAMMALS
APPENDIX 2.6 LIST OF BIRDS
APPENDIX 2.7 LIST OF INSECTS, including
APPENDIX 2.8 LIST OF REPTILES, including
APPENDIX 2.9 LIST OF FROGS
APPENDIX 2.10 LIST OF FISH AND RIVERINE
APPENDIX 3 Key: _________ = new
wording, [ ] = wording removed.
PALMIET NATURE RESERVE MANAGEMENT
as adopted by the PNRMANCOM on 03/03/1986
and by Resolution 7383 of the former Westville Town Council on 26/07/1988.
PNRMANCOM modified Clause 6.1 on 15/02/1988 and amended this Clause and Clauses
2 and 3 on 16/02/1998, and Clauses 3.1, 6.1, [6.3], [6.6], 7.1.4, 7.3.3, 7.4,
8.10, 8.14, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 11.2 and 11.3 on 12/11/2003.
1. NAME: PALMIET NATURE RESERVE
(Hereinafter referred to as the Management Committee).
2.1 To promote the management and expansion of the Palmiet Nature Reserve
(hereinafter referred to as the Reserve).
2.2 To establish, update and promote a management plan for the Reserve.
2.3 To preserve a witness area of the former natural heritage through effective
ecological conservation and management of biodiversity and habitats of indigenous
flora and fauna, including avifauna, reptiles, insects and aquatic species.
2.4 To encourage optimal use by all people for passive recreation and education,
provided these do not conflict with the management aims referred to in clauses
2.2 and 2.3.
3.1 To manage on behalf of the [eThembeni] City Council (hereinafter referred
to as the Council) in which the Reserve is located, all aspects of the Reserve
and to maintain liaison with the Council on all matters of common interest,
including the furnishing of a comprehensive annual report on all aspects of
the management of the Reserve and activities during the year.
3.2 To compile and keep adequate documentation relating to management, development,
expansion and problems of the Reserve.
3.3 To design and update research programmes for management and development,
aided, where necessary, by interested persons, universities and other organisations.
3.4 To promote environmental and conservation awareness with the view to establishing
pubic initiatives, interaction and involvement.
3.5 To disseminate information to encourage public interest in the Reserve
and participation in organised activities and especially to promote an education
programme, including environmental and recreational trails.
3.6 To involve the local community, especially in the vicinity of the Reserve,
interested persons and organisations to:
? gain insights and ideas
? widen perspectives
? exchange information
? contribute opinions on important issues
? encourage research possibilities and obtain co-operation and support for
management aims and objectives.
4 AREA OF MANAGEMENT
The area in which the committee will function includes all areas within the
Reserve and any linked or integrated public open space and environmental protection
Members elected to the Management Committee shall have a knowledge of and
interest in nature conservation, and/or ecology, and/or environmental education,
and/or Nature Reserve administration.
6 MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE
6.1 The Management Committee members shall include [consist of not more than
10 persons, comprising]:
? a City Councillor, preferably
from the Ward in which the Reserve is located [or his/her alternate]
? the Reserve Manager [Borough Environmental Officer], employed by the City
? [a Borough staff liaison representative]
? the Honorary Warden or co-ordinator of management, if appointed
? FOUR members elected annually from nominations motivated by the Friends
of the Palmiet (also known as the Palmiet Environmental Society)
? ONE representative from:
- the Highway Branch of the Wildlife and Environment Society
- each of the Urban Conservancies adjoining the Reserve
- the University of Durban-Westville
- Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife.
6.2 The Chairman, Vice-Chairman,
Secretary and Treasurer shall be elected by the Management Committee, from
amongst its members; provided that no office bearer shall hold office for
a continuous period exceeding five years.
[6.3 The Management Committee members, apart from the Warden and those representing
the Council, Wildlife society and University, shall be appointed annually
from nominations submitted and motivated by the Palmiet Environmental Society;]
6.3 The Management Committee may delegate any if its executive powers to subcommittees
as it sees fit. Such subcommittees shall be subject to the same limitations
as the Management Committee.
6.4 The Management Committee may co-opt persons with special knowledge or
abilities onto a subcommittee. Co-opted members shall have full voting rights
in their relevant subcommittees, but no voting rights at any Management Committee
meetings, if invited to attend.
[6.6 The Management Committee shall be responsible for the control of the
rangers employed in the Nature Reserve and the allocation of their duties.]
7 OFFICE BEARERS
7.1 The Chairman
The Chairman of the Management Committee shall:
7.1.1 preside at every meeting of the Committee at which he/she is present;
7.1.2 be entitled to vote in the first instance and, in the case of an equality
of votes, may give a second or casting vote. Where the Chairman has not voted
in the first instance, he/ she may, in the case of an equality of votes, give
a casting vote;
7.1.3 sign the minutes when the same have been confirmed by the Management
7.1.4 prepare an annual report to be presented to a meeting prescribed in
Clause 8.14 [the members of the Management Committee] and the Council by the
end of the month of November [April].
The Vice-Chairman shall, when presiding, have the same powers and rights of
voting as those possessed by the Chairman.
The Secretary shall be responsible for:
7.3.1 all correspondence,
7.3.2 the minutes of all meetings
7.3.3 drawing up the agenda for Committee Meetings, to be distributed as set
out in Clause 8.3
The Treasurer shall be responsible for the financial administration of the
income and expenditure of the Management Committee and the Palmiet Nature
Reserve Development Fund.
8.1 Management Committee meetings shall be held at least three times a year;
8.2 The quorum of the Management Committee shall be 50% of the number of its
8.3 At least fourteen days before any meeting of the Management Committee
a notice to attend the meeting specifying the business to be transacted thereat
and signed by the Secretary shall be justify or delivered at the usual residence
of each committee member;
8.4 Accidental omission of service of notice on any Management Committee member
shall not affect the validity of the meeting;
8.5 No business shall be transacted at a meeting other than that specified
in the notice relating thereto except any matters which the Chairman considers
urgent or which the Management Committee resolves to deal with as urgent;
8.6 The Management Committee shall from time to time fix the date and times
8.7 If deemed necessary by the Chairman, the Secretary shall call a special
meeting of the Management Committee at a time and on a date specified on a
notice of such meeting;
8.8 Every matter brought before the Management Committee shall be decided
by a majority of those present and voting, if necessary, shall be by a show
8.9 Minutes shall be kept of the proceedings of all meetings containing:
8.9.1 date of meeting;
8.9.2 names of members present and those with leave of absence;
8.9.3 confirmation or if necessary, the alteration of the minutes of the previous
8.9.4 record of all decisions taken;
8.9.5 if required, a record of those members voting for or against any decision;
8.10 The minutes of all meetings shall be taken as read at the next meeting
and after confirmation, signed by the Chairman, thereby accepting the minutes
as a true record of the proceedings of that meeting;
8.11 When so requested by the Chairman, each proposal or amendment shall be
set out in writing;
8.12 No proposal or amendment may be withdrawn by the mover without the consent
of the seconder and the approval of the meeting;
8.13 When speaking, a member shall address the Chairman and if two or more
members offer to address the Chairman at the same time, he/she shall call
on one to speak and shall indicate the order in which the other or others
not so called on to speak thereafter;
8.14 An Annual General Meeting may take place, together with the Friends of
the Palmiet (formerly Palmiet Environmental Society) if desired, to receive
the Chairman's annual report, the audited financial statements and to present
the Friend of the Palmiet Award to deserving candidates and whatever items
may be decided. The format contained in Clauses 8.1 to 8.13 may be followed
during this meeting. Should this meeting not be held, the reports and awards
may be presented at a normal Management Committee meeting.
9.1 Funds of the Management Committee shall be used for [the ends of] use
in the Palmiet Nature Reserve alone;
9.2 A bank [ing] account will be opened at an approved, registered bank [or
building society] in the name of the Management Committee and all funds belonging
to the Management Committee shall be deposited there;
9.3.1 A further account, to be known as the Palmiet Nature Reserve Development
Fund, will be opened at a registered bank [or building society], for purposes
of receiving donations;
9.3.2 This account is to be audited and presented annually to a meeting as
prescribed in Clause 8.14 [an annual general meeting of the Palmiet Environmental
9.4 The Treasurer alone issues all payments by cheque, which must be signed
by two signatories from three, which shall include the Treasurer, [and] the
Chairman [or Vice-Chairman] and one other member appointed by the Management
9.5 The Treasurer will open and keep a set of books of account which shall
be audited by a competent auditor appointed by the Management Committee [the
Treasurer of the Borough of Westville or his nominee];
9.6 The financial year of the Management Committee closes on the last day
of June [January] each year and financial statements will be presented to
members at an ensuing meeting prescribed in Clause 8.14.
10 AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION
10.1 Any stipulation of this constitution may be altered at a meeting by not
less than two thirds of the members of the Management Committee;
10.2 Any proposed amendment must reach the Secretary in writing at least one
month before a scheduled meeting of the Management Committee. When notifying
members of the meeting, the Secretary must also mention the proposed amendment
to the constitution.
11.1 The Management Committee shall be dissolved if a resolution to that end
is passed by the Council or a majority of more that two thirds of those members
personally present at a duly constituted meeting.
11.2 On the dissolution of the Management Committee the assets (after winding
up and the deduction of liabilities) shall be transferred to a conservation
organisation as directed by the Management Committee [to the Town Council
of the Borough of Westville].
11.3 Financial assets of the PNR Development Fund shall be transferred in
accordance with the constitution of this Fund.
PALMIET NATURE RESERVE DEVELOPMENT
Approved by the Palmiet Nature Reserve
Management Committee on 06/11/1979 and
Clauses 2, 3 and 4 modified and approved by this Committee on 12/11/2003
To provide the opportunity of encouraging donations for the purpose of development
projects within the Palmiet Nature Reserve.
Contributions / donations are to be placed in a suitable [Building Society
Savings Account or] registered bank[ing] account. A treasurer, elected at
[the Annual Meeting] a meeting of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee,
shall keep account of the donations, other income and expenditure. Two [further]
signatories from three, which shall include the Treasurer, the Chairman and
one other member of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee, [and
one other member], shall be appointed to sign to enable withdrawal transactions
to be concluded. [in the absence of one of the two signatories required to
withdraw from the fund]
The account shall be audited annually and a statement presented at either
the Annual Meeting of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee/ Friends
of the Palmiet or a meeting of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee.
The financial year-end shall be determined by this Committee.
1. CLOSURE OF THE PALMIET NATURE RESERVE DEVELOPMENT FUND
Should it be necessary, for any reason, to close this fund, the balance of
monies remaining in the fund shall be transferred to a conservation organisation
such as the Highway Branch [Region] of the KwaZulu-Natal Region of the Wildlife
and Environmental Society of Southern Africa or its successors in title.