It is appropriate that, at long last, the management strategies of the Palmiet Nature Reserve are being committed to print. While there is no doubt that it has been excellently managed over the years by competent staff who are trained to implement management procedures in natural areas, it is important that the decisions, made over the years, are recorded in an all inclusive document. This will enable the management to be seen in totality and not in separate sheets of paper or, worse still, in the minds of those who evolve the policy.

It should be noted that the approaches to the management of natural areas are never static. Methods of management implementation are therefore liable to change and review. Usher (1973, P 308), sums this up succinctly: "Management is thus an imprecise science, the lack of precision being contributed both by the inherent variability of organisms and ecosystems, and by the very nature of the limitations imposed by man. Management is itself concerned with intervention within the ecosystem, either to alter the status quo in a wanted direction, or to prevent the status quo altering in an unwanted direction. In order to undertake such actions one is almost always faced with a lack of specific data about the biological mechanisms involved, and hence one will have to estimate what is likely to happen, another source of imprecision". It is therefore imperative that this Management Plan is dynamic and subject to review and amendment in the light of new research and approaches.

The format used in this Management Plan is based on that used in Usher (1973, Pp 309 to 312) and Link (1985), with additional aspects, where appropriate. Having looked at small nature reserves, and particularly the Palmiet Nature Reserve (Cottrell, 1978) for my Master's degree, it has been rewarding to assemble this Management Plan into a workable document.

Members PNRMANCOM for support and decision making which has enabled this Management Plan to evolve over the years since 1972.

Peter Brigg, Estates Manager of the former Westville Municipality, for his outstanding work in increasing the size of PNR over the years.

C J (Roddy) Ward for his early role on PNRMANCOM and private discussions over the years, especially with regard to grassland management.

The former PNR Manager, Stephen Butler, for his regular discussions on management in PNR and in implementing management decisions. He is thanked for his comments and assistance in the committing of this Management Plan to print.

Jean Senogles, Prof. Helen Watson and Prof. Steven Piper for their critical comments in their reading of the draft of this Management Plan.

My thanks to my wife, Stella, for typing and proof reading the text.

Michael J Cottrell September 2003


AMAFA KZN Provincial Heritage Protection Organisation
DMOSS Durban Metropolitan Open Space System (sometimes referred to as MOSS)
KZN KwaZulu-Natal
EKZNWL Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife (formerly Natal Parks Board)
PNR Palmiet Nature Reserve
PNRMANCOM Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee
PNR Manager The person responsible for implementing the management in the PNR
UD-W University of Durban-Westville, also UD-W Conservancy

Unless the date of approval is specifically stated, the contents of this Management Plan represents the management strategy that has operated since the Palmiet Nature Reserve opened in 1972. The full Management Plan as a single document was reviewed and approved by the PNRMANCOM on 12/11/2003.



1.1.1 PNR is a community managed municipal Nature Reserve. It is located 11 km fromcentral Durban in Westville, a suburb of the Ethekwini Municipality, in the Palmiet River valley, from which it takes its name. It extends some 4,8 km along the Palmiet River, while the UD-W Conservancy follows the river for another 1,8 km. The PRN is 0,9 km at its widest point, across the Faurea woodland spur to the opposite southern slope. It is therefore somewhat elongated in shape, following the meandering Palmiet river.

1.1.2 Grid reference at Gwalagwala main entrance: 29?49'28"S, 30?55'33"E.

1.1.3 Area: ??? ha. Refer to Appendix 1.1 for the Lot numbers that make up the PNR and Appendix 1.2 for a Point to Point description.

1.1.4 Access: The main entrance at Gwalagwala is at the end of Old New Germany Road. The Dorothy McLean entrance is at the end of David McLean Drive and the Faurea entrance is off Pitlochry Road in Faurea Place in Westville North.


The finding of stone and iron age artifacts in PNR indicates that people of these cultures would have roamed through the Palmiet River valley long before the arrival of Zulu and later, European settlers in the area. However, the earliest written accounts, to date, are the paragraph by Phipson in 1851 (Currey, 1968, P 43), describing the Gwalagwala Cliff and river, and the two page description in Brooks (1876 Pp 309-310) of the Palmiet valley. The frontispiece of the latter is a coloured woodcut picture of the Cascade.

Fortunately, in 1968, a small group of concerned residents pressed the then Westville Town Council to establish a nature reserve in the Palmiet valley to ensure that the wildlife heritage and scenic beauty would be spared from development. This has enabled present and future generations to enjoy what the pioneers had known. The area was offered to the former Natal Parks Board (now EKZNWL) to manage as a nature reserve, but this was not accepted, as it was felt that local authorities should also take responsibility for conservation.

On 6th September 1972, the PNR opened to the public with a trail for the local councillors and officials. The early hiking paths were made by scholars from Westville Boys' High School. The Council became enthusiastic with the concept and, over the years, following the recommendations of Cottrell (1978 Pp 147-154), expanded PNR from its original 13ha to a viable small nature reserve of almost 100ha. The management was placed in the hands of a committee which embraced the local community, councillors and municipal officials. This Management Committee survives today and, as far as it can be ascertained, PNR is unique in that it is the only community managed urban nature reserve in Durban and the Ethekwini area. The Ethekwini Municipality employs a Manager, who has wider environmental responsibilities, and three Field Rangers in the PNR. In 1996 the new main entrance at Gwalagwala provided vastly improved facilities, with parking, display boards and visitor information in a boma overlooking a pond, a hall for audio-visual presentations and environment friendly community use, toilets, a braai site and accommodation for Field Rangers.

Numerous volunteers have, over the years, assisted with the guided trails, education programmes and other projects, such as the Westville Lions Club with bridges, a board walk and disabled trail. Neighbouring urban conservancies take an active interest in PNR. Research projects in many fields feature prominently. Professor Steven Piper is a world authority on the Long-tailed Wagtail, as a result of his ongoing research since 1976 in PNR. The first discovery, by a school boy in the 1970s, of stone age artifacts and more recent discoveries from the iron age, have lead to structured archaeological research.

Two exceptionally damaging floods in 1999 washed away braai sites, a board walk and both pedestrian bridges. The flood plain was widened, removing most of the former gallery forest that tended to enclose the river. On the positive side, the main Gwalagwala braai area has been restored and the more open valley has brought bird species seldom seen before. This, together with the diverse ecological and wildlife habitats, its solitude qualities and its 15kms of hiking paths, offer many educational and recreational opportunities for scholars, residents and visitors from further afield. It is thus an important component of DMOSS.


1.3.1 Topography: It occupies a steep valley with rugged krantzes, which enhances it as a spectacular scenic destination. The undulating, steep topography has already been alluded to in Clause 1.1.1. The highest altitude in the PNR is 240 m which is the boundary on summit of the Outspan Cliff, while the altitude of the south-western end of North Cliff is 228 m, the Faurea entrance is 214 m and the gate in the Dissotis wetland is 212 m. The Palmiet River is 172 m where it enters PNR in the west and 87 m where it leaves it at the eastern boundary, this being the lowest point in the PNR. The account in Dunlevey (1999) states that a massive 120 m drop in sea level, approximately 20 000 years ago, created a sudden increase in gradient which caused the rivers to cut down into the existing channels, resulting in the incised meanders of the present day Palmiet River valley, where a relatively small river occupies a deep and highly sinuous gorge.

1.3.2 Drainage and hydrological regime: The Palmiet River rises in the Kloof escarpment, flows through the Pinetown-New Germany industrial area, a source of occasional river pollution, and thereafter is the key drainage feature of the PNR. It enters the Mgeni River as a tributary in Springfield. Three small, short tributary streams within the PNR enter the river; the Umthini on the western boundary from the south and the Nsimba and Mvuzi from the north. As the Palmiet River catchment is largely urbanised with impervious hard surfaces that increase run-off, the hydrological regime is typical of an urban river hydrograph (See Diagram 1). The 4,5 m flood of February 1999, when 305 mm of rain was recorded in the PNR in 14 hours, caused much damage to the Reserve. This and a second heavy flood in December of the same year, resulted in the flood plain of the river being increased to about three times its former width.

1.3.3 Geology: Dunlevey (1999) identifies the sandstones of the Natal Group, formed about 600 million years ago, as the main rock in the PNR. Within these sedimentary deposits are coarser pebbles, including quartz, jasper and chert, that can be found, as a result of the weathering of the sandstones, along the river bed. To the east, including the PNR Dwyka Cliff, are the molten glacial tillite deposits of the Dwyka Group from the ice age of about 350 million years ago. With the break up of Gondwanaland some 200 million years ago, magma, trapped within fractures, solidified to form dolerite, which has subsequently been exposed by erosion. A doleritic dyke is now visible in the Palmiet River bed near the Nsimba Stream and dolerite rocks can be found washed downstream of this outcrop

1.3.4 Soils: The bulk of the soils of the PNR are derived from the sandstones of the Natal Group. They are prone to erosion when disturbed, hence the need to ensure that hiking paths do not cause a problem in this regard. Cole (1961) describes them broadly as gley-like podsolic soils of the eastern coastal belt, where high temperatures promote rapid decomposition of organic matter and which are generally leached on account of heavy thunderstorms. According to Emery (pers. com., 2000), the soils down to about 0,15 m are moist, light brown, firm silty medium sand and this is repeated to a depth of 1 m with the addition of pinkish brown weathered sandstone fragments. In researching the Faurea woodland, De Smidt (1987) describes them as characteristically sandy with a high permeability which encourages rapid percolation. She classifies the soil form, using the binomial system for South Africa, as Hutton, Glenrosa or Mispah and the series to be Hutton, Platt or Mispah. The A horizon, with a clay content of 0 - 15%, varied in depth from 25 - 45 cm and the B horizon, with a clay content of 0 - 30%, had a depth variation of 35 - 90 cm.

1.3.5 Climate: Temperature, humidity (in a Stevenson Screen) and rainfall (using a standard 5" gauge) , and other weather conditions, have been recorded at 8 Old New Germany Road, opposite PNR, since 1968. Unfortunately they have not been averaged to give a more acceptable overall picture. As this station is located at an altitude of 223 m, it would be advantageous to record temperatures in the valley, as local variations can be marked, with temperatures that can be 5?C lower, being recorded when cold air drainage conditions are present in the valley. On one occasion there was frost in the valley.

The range of maximum and minimum temperatures for January and July are given:
January min.14?C - 23?C, max. 17?C - 36?C; July min. 9?C - 17?C, max. 14?C - 35?C.
Berg winds, that precede cold front conditions in winter, are responsible for the high July maximum, similar to that in January and also low humidity readings below 30%. The highest temperature recorded at this station is 38?C and the lowest is 7?C and 8?C on another occasion. Humidity ranges from 60% to 95% in January and 25% to 90% in July.

In 2002 the average annual rainfall over a 34 year period at a station at 11 Nordene Road, 0,4 km from PNR, was 1036 mm. It is possible that this figure would be lower in the valley. On average, the bulk of the rainfall occurs during the summer, but heavy rainfall episodes can occur at any time of the year.


1.4.1 Vegetation: Refer to Map - depicting the chief plant communities.
PNR, in the Acocks (1975) classification, falls within the Coastal Tropical Forest of KZN. However, this represents a broad picture which is not relevant considering the present vegetation communities, which have been highly modified by human intervention, found in PNR. Cottrell (1978 Pp 21 & 85) identifies four main plant communities, namely, (1) lithophytic and cliff-top communities; (2) grass with bush clumps, to which must be added the Faurea saligna woodland on the Grass Ridge spur; (3) scrub and (4) forest. The numerous cliffs in PNR provide a home for many interesting lithophytic species, ranging from lichens and mosses to trees which survive in soil pockets created from weathering rock processes and the accumulation of organic material. Although not a rare species elsewhere, the Faurea saligna woodland stands are unique in the Ethekwini area, the only other known occurrence being in New Germany Nature Reserve. The grass communities are probably relics of what were undoubtedly more widespread distributions in the past. Those that are not managed with fire have diminished markedly since the 1975 and 1977 aerial photographs, upon which the PNR plant community map is based. The grass managed areas are noted in Clause 3.3.1. Scrub, being in a state of transition from grass to forest, is the most dominant vegetation group found throughout the PNR. Mature forest is not widespread, with patches scattered throughout the PRN, but the most extensive community is below the Outspan Cliff in the Phansikhumula area. Smaller patches occur below the Nkawu Cliff and on the southern slopes of the Grass Ridge spur. By far the best and largest forest is that on the southern campus slopes of the UD-W Conservancy. The former gallery forests that overhung most parts of the Palmiet River have disappeared in the 1999 floods, but trees still thrive along the edge of the widened flood plain.

Photo Clive Read

1.4.2 Bird, mammal, reptile and other life: The abundant bird life, with over 150 species, and the list of over 170 trees, make the Nature Reserve a desirable destination for wildlife enthusiasts. However, as mammals have not been introduced into the PNR, these are yseldom seen by visitors. Vervet monkeys are the most numerous of the mammals, but these are also not often visible, as they disappear during the day in search of more easily secured food in residential areas. Snakes, although seldom seen, are plentiful, both in numbers and species variety, while the monitor lizard is perhaps the most visible reptile. Refer to Appendix 2 for lists of wildlife in PNR.


1.5.1 Presently, the PNR has no legal nature reserve status and is zoned public open space in the local authority town planning scheme.

1.5.2 On 4 December 1992, a Site of Conservation Significance was granted to the PNR by EKZNWL.

1.5.3 The problem of conferring official nature reserve status on municipal land by the Province of KZN was highlighted by Cottrell (1978, Pp 113, 114, 154-156). In this regard, the then Cape Province offered not only a higher legal status for municipal nature reserves, but also financial support.


1.6.1 As a local authority nature reserve, the Ethekwini Municipality shall be responsible for the financing of the PNR. It shall finance the staff salaries, capital expenditure and maintenance of buildings and infrastructure.

1.6.2 The previous Town Council awarded the PNRMANCOM a Grant-in-aid, for use on development projects and expenses. It is recommended that this grant is re-instated, considering the free professional expertise from scientists and other specialists that is given to the Ethekwini Municipality voluntarily in the management of PNR.

1.6.3 All income from guided trails, braai charges and Frank Farrer Hall charges shall be paid into PNRMACOM finances to cover PNRMANCOM expenses and to be used for development projects. Control of PNRMANCOM finance is covered by Clause 9 of the PNRMANCOM Constitution attached in Appendix 3 and the PNR Development Fund Constitution in Appendix 4.


Prionium serratum (Palmiet plant) and Motacilla clara (Long-tailed Wagtail) are the emblems of the PNR. The latter is depicted on the green epaulettes used by the staff.


(Approved by PMNRMANCOM on 01/09/1994)

(1) allowing the natural evolution of indigenous species
(2) implementing intervention management where desirable, e.g. fire to maintain grassland species, culling or translocation
(3) an ongoing programme of the removal of alien species, including sources from outside the PNR
(3) monitoring of the riverine system against degradation and pollution from sources beyond the PNR.

To encourage optimal public usage, to justify the setting aside of valuable urban land, by means of promoting:

(1) passive recreational opportunities, such as walking and informal nature study, by allowing carefully regulated but unrestricted access to the PNR on a properly laid out and maintained system of footpaths ensuring that, where possible, solitude qualities are preserved.
(2) an ongoing education programme including the provision of guided and self-guided trails, publications and encouraging educational institutions to use the PNR
(3) regular monitoring of the use by the public and the implementation of appropriate management strategies to ensure that excessive human impacts do not have deleterious ecological consequences or destroy the solitude qualities that are expected in a nature reserve.

2.1.5 To engage in and encourage ongoing research to monitor the success of the ecological management, to gain insight into appropriate management strategies and to further knowledge of the operation of ecological systems, including the collection, under permit, of base line data ensuring that any change in management is duly recorded in the Management Plan.

2.1.6 To ensure that the PNR Manager is guided by the Management Plan and the PNR Management Committee (PNRMANCOM), that outside specialist advice is obtained when necessary and that adequate documentation of management and decisions are kept.

2.1.7 To maintain good relations with neighbouring residents and properties and to encourage them to exist in harmony with the aims and objectives of the PNR.


Preamble: The community based Management Committee (PNRMANCOM) could provide a model as to how local communities can serve in the management of local authority nature reserves.

2.2.1 PNRMANCOM shall have elected members and appointed members, as indicated in the Constitution that has been approved by the local authority and printed in Appendix 3.

2.2.2 The meetings, office bearers and members, their election and their duties, chief of which is the formulation of the management strategies in the PNR, are outlined in this Constitution.

2.2.3 The finances of the PNRMANCOM shall be controlled by the constitution of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Development Fund, which is attached in Appendix 4.


2.3.1 A group, the Friends of the Palmiet, also known as the Palmiet Environmental Society,
open to supporters of the PNR, shall be controlled by a constitution, independent of the PNRMANCOM.

2.3.2 In terms of the PNRMANCOM Constitution (Appendix 2, Clause 6.3), FOUR members of the Friends of the Palmiet shall be elected, at the AGM, to the PNRMANCOM.

2.3.3 An Annual General Meeting shall be jointly organised by the Friends of the Palmiet an the PNRMANCOM.

2.3.4 This group may also extend its sphere of activities to include the Palmiet River Catchment.

2.3.5 The Palmiet Meanderings journal or news sheet, published jointly by the PNRMANCOM and Friends of the Palmiet, should cover information, research projects and items of interest relating to the PNR and the Palmiet River Catchment. Copies should be filed and placed at the Bergtheil Museum, Westville, for the dissemination of information on PNR for research purposes (see Clause 9.5).

2.3.6 It is useful that PNR information is given on a web site ( Read, 2003) that is regularly updated. The present site is:
2.3.7 Each of the EKZNWL registered urban conservancies adjacent to PNR, namely Westville Conservancy, Loerie Park Conservancy, Umvuzi Conservancy, and UD-W Conservancy, shall be represented on the PNRMANCOM. See Clause 6.1 of PNRMANCOM Constitution in Appendix 3. Refer to map


2.4.1 The PNR Manager shall ensure that relevant City Bylaws and KZN Nature Conservation Management Act (9 of 1999) are enforced in the PNR.
2.4.2 The PNR Manager shall also ensure that the contents of this Management Plan are effectively implemented.

The following are suggested guidelines of what is expected of the Field Rangers in their work duties in the PNR:

2.5.1 The Field Rangers shall work under the guidance of the PNR Manager.

2.5.2 Ideally, it is suggested that the Field Rangers work flexi time, including over weekends. This is to extend the hours during which there is a Field Ranger on duty in the PNR throughout the period of day light. Local Authority hours of work are unsuited for the adequate control of nature conservation areas. Flexi time was successfully achieved when the former Wildlife Society employed the Field Rangers in the PNR.

2.5.3 Their prime role is to patrol on an ongoing basis in order to check the state of the PNR particularly relating to ecological and recreational problems. They are expected to report their observations to the PNR Manager on a regular basis.

2.5.4 The following are suggested additional duties that the Field Rangers are required to do:

(1) Be of assistance to visitors to the PNR.
(2) Conduct guided trails, especially in isiZulu, including after hours, when required.
(3) Check that the hiking paths and river crossing stepping stones are in good order and passable.
(4) Patrol every path and check each river crossing on a regular basis, at least weekly, but preferably more frequently.
(5) Assist with the path maintenance, in accordance with Clause 6.3.8.
(6) Check that the river crossing stepping stones are still in place after periods of river flooding.
(7) Remove litter from areas used by visitors, i.e. at entrances and the parking area, along paths, at river crossings, at braai and picnic sites and in the vicinity of the Frank Farrer Centre and Hall.
(8.1) Set up the braai equipment and materials for visitors who book and pay for a site.
(8.2) Be on duty at Gwalgwala between 11h30 and 13h30 on weekends and holidays to handle any requesting for a braai, provided the site has not been previously booked.
(8.3) Control the unauthorised use of the braai sites.

(9) Assist with the invasive alien plant removal programme, especially in supervising teams when used for this purpose.


2.6.1 A team of volunteer Field Rangers may be appointed to assist with the patrolling of the PNR and some of the tasks set out under the clauses in 2.5

2.6.2 In order to give such volunteers the necessary authority and so that they may be identified by visitors, it is preferable that they wear the epaulettes used by the paid members of the PNR staff.

2.6.3 It is useful if Honorary Field Rangers report any observations or incidents to the PNR Manager.

2.6.4 Honorary Field Rangers may be co-opted on to the PNRMANCOM.


2.7.1 The urban location of PNR, within a predominately residential area, necessitates that the PNRMANCOM should endeavour to maintain good relationships with neighbours, resolve, where necessary, conflict and encourage their participation. The largest landowner, UD-W, and 135 residential properties border directly onto PNR and a harmonious relationship on both sides will engender a considerable support group for the ideals manifested by PNR.

2.7.2 Where possible, employment, job creation and empowerment are to be given to local communities.

2.7.3 As the task of observing every part of the PNR with limited staff is difficult, it would be useful to approach residents who live adjacent to the PNR and who have a good view of it, to volunteer to report any unauthorised activity to the PNR Manager.

2.7.4 Likewise, residents living on the Palmiet River upstream of PNR, could report serious episodes of river pollution. See Clause 4.2.


Preamble: This is the prime management activity in nature conservation areas, and as such, must be accorded prominence in PNR. Usher (1973, P.204) gives a succinct definition:

Biological conservation is essentially concerned with the interaction between man and the environment. Fulfilment of conservation objectives for a biological resource requires the resource's management in perpetuity on the basis of a sustained production of the resource or biotic component of the environment and a sustained demand on the resource or environment by man.


3.1.1 The plant biota shall be allowed to evolve under natural processes, with the following exceptions:

(1) in the case of fire management, outlined in Clause 3.3, in order to retain, and possibly increase, grass communities,
(2) with the removal of invasive alien plant species - see Clause 3.4,
(3) the management of the Dissotis Wetland - see Clause 3.5.

3.1.2 Apart from selected areas at the entrances, the vicinity of the Frank Farrer Centre, and the Visitor Boma at Gwalagwala entrance, no vegetation, including indigenous, may be planted in or removed from the PNR, except after consultation with the PNR Manager and the PNRMANCOM.

3.1.3 An approved project is the experimental reintroduction of Prionium serratum, the Palmiet plant, to the river by members of the Umvuzi Conservancy ( D'Eathe, 2000 pers. com.). The area allocated for this research is on the southern flood plain of the Palmiet River, east of Shaik's Pool, at the C2 crossing of the Ntengu Trail

3.1.4 Every effort shall be made to remove all alien plants, especially those in the invasive category. Refer to Clause 3.4 for detailed procedures for the removal of alien plants.

3.1.5 All indigenous bird, insect, reptile, animal, fish and water biota within the PNR shall be protected. The introduction or removal of any species is not permitted without consultation with the PNR Manager and the PNRMANCOM.



3.2.1 It is desirable that the PNR be enclosed with bonnex type fencing that permits the passage of small animals, such as mongoose and genet cats, but which precludes dogs and people (except at official entrances) from entering.

3.2.2 Priority should be given to fencing those parts of PNR which are adjacent to roads.

3.2.3 Related to Clause 3.2.2, there is a need to fence from the Welakalula Bridge to the corner of the Frank Farrer Hall along the short public access path that links Old New Germany Road to Stanley Teale Road.


Clauses 3.3.1 to 3.3.4, with the exception of Clause 3.3.4 were approved by PNRMANCOM on 01/09/1994)
Refer to Map --. The main grass communities as indicated in aerial photographs of 1975 and 1977 and the orthophoto map of 1976.

Preamble: Although the grassland communities in PNR are small and, therefore, hardly viable, the management of them is highly recommended for the following reasons, highlighted by Le Roux (undated):

- The grassland communities add to the biodiversity offered
- Grasslands are generally poorly represented in the Coastal areas of KZN and are often the first to succumb to destruction through urban growth and other development projects.

Butler (1990 pers. com.) and Le Roux (undated) recommend an interval of 2 years, provided conditions are suitable. Controlled burns are to be implemented in the grasslands to maintain the vigour of the grass plants and control woody species. PNR is situated in a high rainfall area (>800 mm p.a.), its grasslands tend to revert to forest unless managed accordingly. Fire alone may not be sufficient to control woody species and it may be necessary to use physical control methods from time to time. Burning will also maintain the diversity of flowering plants that occur within the grassland communities. It is recommended that both burning season and fire intensity be varied annually to avoid repetitive burn conditions.

Burning programmes must take into account the faunal component of the grassland communities, particularly small rodents, invertebrates, insects and reptiles. Kern (1981) showed that fire in the Kruger National Park had an influence on reducing small mammals, which are important prey species for smaller carnivores and some birds, thereby ultimately reducing the overall diversity and biomass. He recommended no burning as the least detrimental strategy but, as burning was necessary for other reasons, suggested a 3 year cycle and leaving some areas that are never or seldom burnt. The latter is difficult in a small nature reserve, which lacks space. Rowe-Rowe, (1983) reported that the absence of fire for more than two years may cause a drop in species number. Fennessy, (1988) stated that the low abundance of species at Faurea, and the potentially consequent lowering of diversity, is a possible indication of this trend in the PNR. His mammal research coincided with the period where the Faurea grassland was not burned for 6 years. However it is important to research to effect of burning on the total species occurrence in PNR. Research by Butler (2000) showed that insect populations recover after fire through the development of larvae from eggs that survived the fire and by fleeing the fire front. He found that grasshopper abundance was lowest in the post burn sites, but that rotational burning allows for the maintenance of the grasshopper abundance and diversity, thus highlighting the need for rotating the burn in the fire management.

3.3.1 Location of Grass Communities

The main areas managed for grass and associated communities are:

(1) Faurea Grassland This is located on the south and east of the sloping spur extending from Faurea Place and entrance to PNR, as far as the bush and tree covered steeper valley slopes and cliffs to the east south and west. For burning management purposes it is divided into:

Block A - the upper portion north of the Nkanekane Trail.

Block B - the lower portion south of the Nkanekane Trail.

(1) isiKhwehle Grassland Located on an eastern slope opposite the Ntengu Cliff. The management of this grass community, showing dereliction in 1976. Tree and bush shall be preserved on the river flood plain.

(1) Nsimba Grassland This is a remnant of what was, in terms of variety of grass and associated species, formerly the best grassland in this portion of the Palmiet River valley, prior to the development of the Loerie Park town house complex. The management, in conjunction with those portions remaining in Loerie Park Conservancy, commenced when the lower portion was incorporated into management by PNR. The PNR portion is located opposite where the Nsimba stream joins the Palmiet River and to the east and north of the Loerie Park boundary as far as the pedestrian gate entrance into PNR. It extends as far as the tree lined dry gully and Phansikhumula forest in the east and riverine tree belt along the Palmiet River in the north.

(1) The small portion of grassland in the Dissotis Wetland may be managed if desired. Refer to Clause 3.5.3 under management of Dissotis Wetland.

3.3.2 Management

(1) The aim is to:

(1.1) maintain these areas as grassland in order to preserve as many diverse plant and associated communities in the Reserve as possible,

(1.2) retard the invasion of woody species,

(1.3) increase the grass species diversity from the predominance of Aristida junciformis (Ngongoni),

(1.4) preserve the Faurea saligna savanna in area 1 (see Clause 3.3.4),

(1.5) provide aesthetically pleasing open vistas to contrast from the predominant bush and forest communities that dominate most of PNR.

(2) To achieve this aim the following is recommended:

(2.1) The burning programme shall take place during the winter or spring period every 2 to 3 years, either pre or post rain to emulate natural conditions as far as possible. Burning is dependent upon the presence of sufficient fuel and lack of moisture to provide a hot burn, failing which the fire will not achieve its objective and will encourage the invasion of bush species.

(2.2) The burning interval must not be too great so as not to prevent the shading of desirable species such as Themeda triandra.

(2.3) Care must be taken to ensure that a burning interval that is too frequent does not impact on the numbers of insect and small mammal life associated with grasslands.

(2.4) Prior to an intended burn, a field inspection involving the PNR Manager and those responsible for grass management to determine the suitability of conditions for burning, is to take place.

(2.5) The burning of Blocks A and B in the Faurea Grassland is to be rotated.

(2.6) Yearly firebreaks in the Faurea Grassland (see Clause 3.3.3 (1)) are to be cut and burnt before the end of May to control the spread of unplanned fires throughout the entire area of this grassland.

(2.7) If it is deemed desirable, the cutting of woody species, well before a scheduled burn, will provide additional fuel to set back heavy infestations.

(2.8) An ongoing programme of removing alien species shall be implemented.

3.3.3 Location of Firebreaks
Refer to Map

(1) Blocks A and B in the Faurea Grassland shall be divided with a fire break. The former straight-line east-west fire break shall be replaced with one following the Nkanekane Trail. On the advice of Ward (1974, pers. com.) Care must be taken to keep fire out of the northern portion of the Nkawu Cliff summit in Block A, which has rare plant species and, in Block B, the area between the Ridge and lower eastern Nkawu Trail (now closed) which constitutes an experiment to test the impact of the lack of fire on Faurea saligna.

(1) If necessary, fire breaks must be created before a planned burn to protect residential and other property adjoining PNR. Likewise, areas where fire must be excluded from sensitive biota, must be similarly protected.

3.3.4 Management of Faurea saligna

In the Faurea Grassland, the Faurea saligna species, as a member of the protea family, need fire to achieve maximum survival. The flow diagram, (Cottrell, 1978, P 122) Diagram 2, sums up the burning strategy relevant for the maintenance of this species and the grass communities. De Smidt (1987) in researching the impact of fire on this species, located in Area 1 - the Faurea Grassland, and its seedlings, noted that a bias in favour of Faurea saligna relative to other woody plants complicates the management. Burning is necessary to keep the area grassed and free of other woody plants, but too frequent burns could adversely affect the continued survival of the Faurea saligna population. She suggests that an interval of 5 to 6 years is necessary for Faurea saligna seedlings to be sufficiently robust to stand a good chance of surviving fire. This being the case, consideration will have to be given to excluding, from time to time, areas with appreciable number of seedlings from fire.

3.3.5 Records and Research
The Management Officer shall keep adequate records of burning management to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of the programme and research into its suitability. Regular surveys of the grass communities shall be encouraged and advice from experts in grass and fire management shall be obtained to ensure the success of the programme.


Preamble: When PNR opened in 1972, the estimated coverage of invasive alien plants, such as Chromolaena odoratum and Lantana camara, was up to about 90% in some areas. Through a removal programme over most of the period since 1972, this has been reduced to below 50% and considerably less in the older parts of PNR. It is therefore important that an ongoing removal programme continues to operate.

The use of chemical herbicides was formerly banned in PNR, but PNRMANCOM ultimatelyconceded that some alien plant species can only be effectively controlled with their use. Liggitt (1983) states that physical methods of removal are preferable and that "in conservation areas the use of herbicides should be avoided if at all possible since these chemicals may have long-term detrimental effects on the environment. Where chemical control is necessary, herbicides with little or no residual effect, such as glyphosate (Roundup) or 2,4-D should be used".

3.4.1 The removal of invasive alien plants, particularly those listed under category 1 in the National Department of Agriculture (2000) list of alien invader plants, should be given priority initially. The ultimate aim should be the elimination of all alien plants listed. In PNR the following alien plants need to be initially given priority: Chromolaena odoratum (Triffid weed), Lantana camara (Tickberry), Litsea glutinosa (Indian laurel), Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Balloon vine), Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine), Melia azedarach (Syringa), Ipomoea sp. (Morning glory), Pennisetium purpureum (Napier fodder) and Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower). A biological control research programme on Lantana camara seems to have reduced this species considerably.

3.4.2 Labour intensive physical removal methods are preferable. Where there are species which are unsuited to this method (e.g. with Litsea glutinosa), the use of ecologically acceptable chemical herbicides may, with care, be used. A variety of control methods for alien plants are available and the best practices are to be implemented in the PNR. Cut stump treatment using a suitable herbicide shall be applied to those alien plants most suited for this method of control. The use of foliar spray is to be limited to certain species and applied under controlled conditions.
The following herbicides may be used as per the specified application:
Chopper - cut stump
Access - cut stump / foliar (residual effect, selective for grasses)
Glyphosate - cut stump / foliar spray (non-selective, non-residual)
Garlon - stem / cut stump / foliar spray

3.4.3 If they are present, it is preferable to remove seeds to reduce the re-infestation.

3.4.4 Where there are large areas of a particular species, it is desirable to lessen the re-infestation rate, by removing plants before they are in seed.

3.4.5 Invariably removal exposes areas of bare soil and, to combat erosion, plants taken out should be justify to reduce this possibility. Selected alien species must be removed from the site for destruction due to re-growth if justify on site, e.g. Anredra cordifolia

3.4.6 After the initial removal, a follow up programme should be done timeously, as areas exposed for the first time are usually devoid of vegetation and are therefore prone to heavy re-infestation by alien species.


Preamble: The Dissotis wetland, so called because of the former abundance of Dissotis canescens, is the only viable wetland in PNR and should be managed as such. The wetland occupies the upper or southern portion of the area above the steep Palmiet valley slope. Unfortunately shading from rapid tree growth from the time that this was a market garden in the early 1960's, has seen a drastic decline in Dissotis canescens.

3.5.1 There are two strategies for the management of the actual wetland: EITHER

(1.1) It is managed for Dissotis canescens, D. phaeotricha and D. princeps and associated communities, in which case, as the species does not thrive in shade, trees must be reduced and removed.

(1.2) Should this be the management preference, trees should be justify along the PNR boundaries in the upper southern portion to screen residential and other development, OR
(2) it is managed as a swamp forest, in which case tree growth must be encouraged.

3.5.2 The water supply to this wetland has been reduced as a result of the agricultural drain installed along western side of Old New Germany Road. In order to recharge it the PNRMANCOM (13/08/2003) agreed to the experimental tapping of a street drain in Old New Germany Road adjacent to the PNR, provided that the flow of stormwater is dispersed with a spreader, that attenuation ponds are constructed and that soil is not eroded. It will be necessary for street litter, washed via the drain into the PNR, to be cleared after rainfall.

3.5.3 The intermediate terrace, above the steep valley slope, may if desired, be managed as a small grassland, as well as parts of the wetland above it, if the strategy in Clause 3.5.1 (1) is followed. (See Clause 3.3.1.(4) under management of grass communities)

3.5.4 The steep north facing valley into the Palmiet River flood plain must be justify with its existing bush and tree plant associations.


4.1 Because the Palmiet River catchment encompasses large areas of urban development with impervious hard surfaces, the river is prone to flooding on a regular basis. In order to prevent bank and flood plain erosion from floods, indigenous riverine and flood plain vegetation must be conserved and not disturbed. The flood of February 1999 considerably widened the flood plain, enabling it to cope more adequately with urban hard surface flood run-off.

4.2 In order to have river pollution reported to the municipal authorities timeously, it is useful
to encourage volunteers to monitor the quality of the Palmiet River throughout its length upstream from the PNR.

4.3 Where obstructions that result from civil engineering works, e.g. the concrete structure, in the Pithi Glade, that covers the pipelines which replaced those destroyed by the February 1999 flood, care must be taken to ensure that the passage of fish and other water biota is not impeded. V-shaped notches, to concentrate low water river flow, or appropriate fish ladders must be provided.


Preamble: Small nature reserves which permit multiple-use recreational, educational and other activities, need to be carefully managed if the quality of the functioning of the biotic communities is to be maintained. Cottrell (1978, P 139-148) recommended 3 zones, to which is added a fourth zone, suggested by Moll (1975) for the New Germany Nature Reserve:

Zone 1: area of restricted use
Zone 2: area of moderate use
Zone 3: area of intensive use
Zone 4: service area.


Four areas make up this zone:
1A the Palmiet Wilds located in the eastern part of PNR
1B the southern valley slopes above the Pithi Glade
1C the Mbongokazi area (Lot 381)
1D the Dwyka Cliff remnant of Derby Downs Quarry Nature Reserve.

These areas cover a total of 25 ha or -% of PNR. The restricted use zone shall be an area where the preservation of wildlife and the provision of nesting and breeding sites is accorded the highest priority, without significant human interference. To facilitate this aim:

5.1.1 No hiking paths will be permitted in this zone and there shall be no path along the Palmiet River downstream from the Cascade, the only access being boulder hopping, which is a deterrent.

5.1.2 The boundary of Zone 1A has been adjusted from that advocated by Cottrell (1978), to enable a link hiking path from the Faurea entrance to the UD-W Conservancy hiking path, through a Zone 2 corridor along the northern PNR/UD-W boundary. Also the area between the circular hiking path from the Faurea entrance to the E 18 junction on the Palmiet/Nkanekane Trail.

5.1.3 To compensate for the loss of restricted land through the intrusion of hiking paths mentioned in Clause 5.1.2, Zone 1 has been extended into Zone 2 towards the Cascade, east of the Palmiet/Nkanekane Trail and across the river as far as the link path to the gate G9 in Albizia Place.

Three areas, which, at ? ha, make up -% of PNR, are included in this zone:
2A the western part of PNR, including Nsimba and Phansikhumula
2B from the eastern end of Gwalagwala Cliff northwards to the Mvuzi valley
2C the entire Grass Ridge spur, including the area of Lot 380 to the northwest.

Nature enthusiasts and hikers are permitted on walking paths, in adequately large enough natural areas that display, where possible, varying diversity, interest and comparative solitude. To achieve this aim:

5.2.1 Apart from the hiking paths, restricted in terms of ratio of distance to area (see Clause 5.5), the management emphasis in this zone is placed on the protection of the natural components and the retention of the natural appearance of the area.

5.2.2 The third zone of intensive use will hopefully attract some visitors away from this zone, thereby reducing the number of users.

5.2.3 To facilitate a degree of solitude, a system of one way circular trail paths could be implemented, provided that the area is sufficiently wide enough (see Clause 6.3.4).


Three areas are designated for this purpose:

3A the area at the main Gwalagwala entrance, including a hide (the boma) with a pond to attract aquatic birds, the braai and picnic indaba area, the disabled trail, the proposed Gwalagwala heritage education site, the circular Palmiet Trail to E3 / Ntengu Trail and the Dissotis wetland.
3B from the David McLean entrance to the Dorothy McLean Bush area below the Nkawu Cliff. This zone shall not be as developed with a braai site, etc, permitted at Zone 3A, but includes the features in Clause 5.3.1 and may include suggestions listed in Clause 5.3.2.
3C the small Cascade rest area with a table and benches and restricted braai and picnic facilities (see Clause 6.4 1 (2).

These areas are about 6 ha, or -% of PNR, and are designed to encourage many of the visitors to venture no further than this zone, leaving a large part of the PNR to the nature enthusiast and those in search of a solitude experience. A survey by Cottrell (1978, Pp 129 & 206) showed that of the visitors from the entrance in David McLean Drive and using the Palmiet Trail along the river, 62% hiked a return distance of about 1 km and 38% the full return distance of 2,6 km to Cascade. From the main Gwalagwala entrance a large proportion of visitors walk no more than about 1,2 km which is the return distance to Mvuzi Falls, but the more difficult path thereafter might deter them. To satisfy these users within this zone and to encourage them to linger, it is necessary to:

5.3.1 Provide, for recreation, a higher density (see Clause 5.5) of circular, one way (if necessary) hiking paths (see Clause 6.3.4) that are, in total, not a great distance from the entrances.

5.3.2 Create educational features of interest within the zone, e.g. self-guided trails, information boards and tree identification numbers. Every effort should be made to blend information boards and features by using colours and materials which blend with the natural environment.

5.3.3 In Zone 3A, the hardened trail path suitable for the disabled is located in the area adjacent to the car park and extending to a view site overlooking the Palmiet River and Gwalagwala Cliff. At this point suitable seating and tables shall be provided.

5.3.4 Appropriate planting to attract butterflies and the planting of interesting flowering plants in a small portion, e.g. along the disabled trail, to provide interest, in Zone 3A only.


In terms of sound practice for conservation areas, particularly in small nature reserves, the facilities, including buildings, braai sites and other recreational facilities, should be located on the periphery of PNR (Cottrell,1978 Pp 53-54 & 140 ) in what is termed the Service Zone (Moll, 1975).

5.4.1 This zone shall be located at the main Gwalagwala entrance to PNR. It accommodates the off street parking area, information boma, toilets, Frank Farrer Hall and field ranger accommodation.

5.4.2 The Cascade Indaba Place, which is not peripherally located but within a prime conservation area. Has been downgraded in terms of Clause .


The overall ratio of the distance of hiking paths to total area in PNR is 0,15 km/ha. It is recommended that the following ratios be applied in each zone:
Zone 1- no hiking paths. Zone 2 should not exceed 0,2km/ha (actual is ) and Zone 3 should not exceed 0,4km/ha (actual is ).


Preamble: Apart from the main function of preserving wild life and a witness area, recreation is the main activity in PNR, ahead of bird watching and other nature interests. Cottrell (1978, P 39 &40) showed that 76,4% of respondents participated in recreational activities, whereas only 23,6% were involved in nature study. Human recreation is undoubtedly the main management function, particularly in a small nature reserve like PNR. There is a need to ensure that human impacts do not disrupt ecosystem and biological processes or detract from solitude qualities that visitors expect in a nature reserve.

Definition: Recreation, in terms of what is acceptable in nature conservation, and therefore in PNR, is defined in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary as the action of recreating, refreshing or reinvigorating oneself or another by some pleasant occupation, pastime or amusement. Obviously in a nature reserve only passive recreational activities are acceptable. Cottrell (1978, P41, 49-50) refers to these as informal activities, such as walking, canoeing, sailing, climbing, swimming, horse-riding, cycling, non-competitive fishing, camping, picnicking, photography, art and informal nature study. In PNR canoeing, sailing and horse-riding are not feasible, fishing and cycling are not compatible, camping is not available and nature study is considered under education, therefore walking, photography, art and picnicking are possible activities.


Preamble: Ideally, for better control of visitors, it is desirable to have one entrance to a nature reserve. However, in PNR three entrances evolved as it expanded, each serving specific needs.

6.1.1 The three official entrances, through which the general public may enter, presently are:
Ge 1 The main Gwalagwala entrance is the newest, located at the end of Old New Germany Road, providing the necessary services for visitors: adequate off-street parking, toilets, the Frank Farrer Hall and Field Ranger accommodation.
Ge 2 The Dorothy McLean entrance is located at the end of David McLean Drive. This was the former main entrance.
Ge 3 The Faurea entrance, located in Faurea Place, off Pitlochry Road, serves Westville North and the UD-W.

6.1.2 It is highly desirable that the PNRMANCOM consider having only one open access for visitors, namely that at Gwalagwala. The other 2 entrances could be provided with locked gates, through which local residents, trail leaders and UD-W staff could secure access as in Clause 6.1.4.

6.1.3 Visitors may also enter or leave the PNR at the point where the Palmiet Trail crosses the north-eastern boundary at the UD-W Conservancy.

6.1.4 Where other gates are required for maintenance access, they shall be kept locked at all times. Neighbouring residents may apply for a key, having made a once off payment, to gain access for purposes of visiting the PNR. The locked gates are located as follows:
Gl 1 upper Stanley Teale Road, Gl 2 Loerie Park, GL 3 lower Stanley Teale Road,
GL 4 lower Old New Germany Road on access path to Welakalula Bridge,
GL 5 Denham Place, GL 6 upper Old New Germany Road, GL 7 Sterling Place,
GL 8 vehicle gate at end of Faurea Place, GL 9 Elston Place, GL 10 Albizia Place.


6.2.1 At entrances:

(1) At the motor entrance to car park, Gwalagwala main entrance:

Palmiet Nature Reserve
? Visitor parking. Reserved for Nature Reserve users.
Other users may be prosecuted.
Nature Reserve open from *(sunrise to sunset)
(*changed in 2003 to specific times) *06h00 - 18h00

(1) At all the visitor entrances to PNR: The wording, in English, isiZulu and Afrikaans, shall be as follows:

Ethekwini Municipality
Welcome to Palmiet Nature Reserve
The destruction of fauna and Flora and the lighting of fires is prohibited.
Persons using the Reserve do so at their own risk. *Right of admission is reserved.

(*i.e. to those interested in wild life, walking or picnicking in designated areas - this wording is not included on the boards)

Idolodha lase Ethekwini
Mamkelekile Esiqiwini Sase Palmiet
Akuvumelekile ukumbulala izilwane nokubaswa izimbali na kuphi nje ukonela phansi. Nokubaswa kwemililo. Abantu abasembensiza lendayo bakwenza ngendlela engaphephile. Imvume yokungena lapha reserved.

Munisipaliteit Ethekwini
Welkom na Palmiet Natuurreservaat
Die beskading of verwydering van diere of plante word streng verbode. Persone wat van hierdiereservaat gebruikmaak, doen dit op eie risiko. Toegang word voorbehou.

Symbolic diagrams to indicate what is allowed and what is not allowed in PNR:
Permissible: [1] Hiking [2] Braais - with the words: booking essential [3] Picnics [4] Bird watching.
Not permissible, with the symbol crossed out: [1] Running [2] Dogs - even on leads
[3] Littering [4] Bicycles.

Bicycles includes all bikes mentioned in Clause 6.3.5.

(1) For the information of visitors at the main Gwalagwala entrance:

(3.1) The direction to Frank Farrer Hall.
(3.2) The direction to the Boma where visitor information concerning guided trails, educational group programmes and braai site costs is given.
(3.3) The direction to the Gwalagwala Indaba Place. Indicate that it must be booked and the fee paid - give a phone number for this purpose.
(3.4) Trail destinations and distances. Also information concerning the trail names and colours, trail junction numbers, river stepping stone crossing numbers and a statement that hikers must keep strictly to the paths and avoid taking short cuts between zig-zags on steep paths, as the soils are susceptible to erosion.
(3.5) A map showing the PNR and the trail paths, with their names and colours.

(1) At locked gates located in the fenced areas and at the entrance from University of Durban-Westville Conservancy:

Palmiet Nature Reserve
Esiqiwini Sase Palmiet
Entry is subject to the regulations displayed at the main entrances to Palmiet Nature Reserve.

6.2.2 At braai and picnic sites

Refer to Clause 6.4.4 for the wording required for particular sites.


Preamble: A good system of hiking paths is essential for the provision of recreation and education and education activities and for patrolling and the overall management. There are - km of hiking paths in PNR and a further - km in the UD-W Conservancy, giving a total of - km.

6.3.1 The density of hiking paths in km/ha in each of the usage zones is given in Clause 5.5.

6.3.2 The approved paths are indicated in Map -, which also gives the path junction, river crossing, entrance and locked gate numbers.

6.3.3 The paths shall be colour coded as follows: The Palmiet Trail - blue, Ntengu Trail - magenta, Nkawu Trail - green, Ridge Trail - red, Nkanekane Trail - yellow, Nsimba Trail - orange and link trails, e.g. to lock-up gates, white. The main path, the Palmiet Trail, largely follows the river and links each part of the PNR from the west to the east.

6.3.4 In order to offer a greater extent of solitude for hikers, a series of circular, one way paths, as shown on Map -, could enable the use of different routes on the return journey and eliminate the presence other hikers walking in the opposite direction.

6.3.5 Bicycles, mountain bikes, scramblers and motor bikes are not permitted as they cause excessive erosion to paths.

6.3.6 Care should be taken to ensure that the gradient of paths is not too steep as the soils in PNR being prone to erosion.

6.3.7 Where paths are unavoidably steep, suitable protection with anti-erosion logs, should be placed across the path.

6.3.8 Field Rangers and others responsible for path maintenance, should check that:

(1) anti-erosion gullies are not silted,
(2) paths are easily negotiable in terms of over growth and head clearance. In this regard it is recommended that about 1 metre on each side of the 1 metre path width is kept clear of rampant alien plants, such as Chromolaena odoratum and Lantana camara and also the indigenous Dalbergia obovata, where these occur, to prevent the rapid closure of paths and
(3) stepping stone river crossings are easily usable.


Preamble: Braai and picnic sites, in terms of Clause 5.4, should be located at the periphery of PNR.

6.4.1 At the present time there are 2 sites:

(1) the Gwalagwala Indaba Place at the main entrance, located ideally in a peripheral area in a secluded site next to the river with the towering Gwalagwala Cliff dominating the vista, and
(2) the Cascade Indaba Place, which, because it is located away from the periphery of the PNR and after severe damage in the 1999 floods, has been downgraded. Cottrell (1978, P 143) recommended that the use of this site be discontinued. In terms of resolutions (Field Meeting 20/03/1999, PNRMANCOM 23/08/2000 item 4.3.2 and 08/11/2000 item 4.3), because of the long tradition of it being a venue for night trails, it may only be used under special conditions, as stated below in Clauses 6.4.2, 6.4.3 and The only permanent fixture is the David Everett Memorial benches and table, which offers hikers a rest and refreshment venue.

6.4.2 Each braai site may only be used by one group at a time, provided that it has been previously booked and paid for, according to the scale of charges determined by PNRMANCOM and displayed in the visitor boma at the main Gwalagwala entrance.

6.4.3 The sites shall be rustic and, because of unauthorised use, benches shall be portable and only placed on the site when the requirements in Clause 6.4.2 have been met. The braai facility at Cascade shall also be portable and removed from the site when not in use.


(1) at Gwalagwala Indaba place:

Palmiet Nature Reserve

This braai and picnic site is reserved for groups who have booked and paid for its use.
Bookings: Give a phone number for this purpose.
On weekends and public holidays, a Field Ranger will be available between 11h30 and 13h30 to receive payment and to set up the facilities for a braai.
Please note:

1. Firewood may not be collected from the Nature Reserve as it has an ecological function in the food chain.
2. Keep away from and do not feed monkeys and other wild life, to ensure that they feed from natural sources.

3. Remove all litter: bins are not provided.

(2) at Cascade Indaba Place
It is probably better not to draw attention to the Cascade braai and picnic site, but should it be necessary to have a sign, the wording should be as follows:

Palmiet Nature Reserve
This braai and picnic site is reserved for organised groups with a PNR leader or Field Ranger, and who have booked and paid in advance for its use.
Bookings: phone the PNR Manager (telephone number)
Please note: Include the 3 regulations as for the Gwalagwala site.


It is important that a bridge be reconstructed over the river near the Gwalagwala entrance. This will enable all weather access at all times into PNR by staff and visitors.


Preamble: Despite the predominance of recreation in PNR, education should, in reality, be the most important organised activity in PNR. High quality education programmes, focussing on the natural environment, ecology, environmental issues, geology and culture, ensure that nature conservation, wild life and the environment are inculcated in the minds of the community.


7.1.1 Regular guided trails should be offered by a team of voluntary trail leaders who are knowledgeable about the wildlife, ecology, geology and environmental issues relevant to PNR.

7.1.2 Field Rangers and/or voluntary trail leaders should be available to guide individuals or groups around the PNR when requested.

7.1.3 Only one group is to be permitted in any specific area at a time. Another group may be permitted, provided that the area that it intends to visit does not overlap with the other group.

7.1.4 Suitable literature should be available, for sale, to enable visitors to guide themselves around PNR and to acquire knowledge of the wildlife, ecology, geology and environmental issues relevant to PNR.

7.1.5 Two self-guided trails should be available:

(1) The existing circular trail (Schoute-Vanneck, 1985) from Dorothy McLean entrance to Cascade, which needs to modified to accommodate the changes resulting from the 1999 floods.
(2) A self-guided trail from the main Gwalagwala entrance.

7.1.6 Distinctive numbered marker posts, which relate to the self-guided trail text, should be located at the selected places of interest.

7.1.7 Selected trees of interest should be marked with labels that indicate the SA Tree Number and name in English, isiZulu and Afrikaans.


Preamble: Usher (1973, P 269) suggests, confirmed in Cottrell (1978, Pp 133-134), that nature reserves used for education should ideally:

(1) have diversity for the demonstration of a wide range of habitats, communities and species and operative ecological factors;
(2) not be liable to irreparable damage by controlled, but heavy use;
(3) not contain rare features or species which ought to be conserved specifically for research or similar activities and therefore not accept education groups;
(4) be reasonably assessable to users in urban areas;
(5) have paths and adequate access for the safe and rapid movement of parties;
(6) contain a field museum or similar centre; and
(7) have a qualified warden.

With the exception of Clause (6), PNR adequately fulfils all these requirements, and therefore should provide opportunities for local educational institutions. The development of the Gwalagwala Heritage Site could, in part, meet the criteria given in Clause (6).

7.2.1 As in Clause 7.1.3, only one education group may be booked at a time, unless the area of operation of a second group does not overlap..

7.2.2 The PNR Manager and other volunteers must ensure that educational programmes in PNR are available and suitable for all levels of schools and tertiary institutions. These programmes should focus on natural, ecological, environmental, geological and cultural aspects available in PNR.

7.2.3 Introductory visual (and audio-visual, if available) programmes, should be available for use in the Frank Farrer Hall, which has blackout facilities (see Clauses in 7.3).

7.2.4 The key educational experience must be in the PNR itself, where the participants should be exposed to practical observation and fieldwork activities, preferably in small groups, with sufficient facilitators to guide them. Appropriate work or guide sheets should be available for this purpose.

7.2.5 The PNR Manager, or his designated substitute, should liaise with teachers or educationalists desiring specific programmes and work or guide sheets that relate to their particular school or college studies.


7.3.1 The Frank Farrer Hall, which was donated by Frank Farrer for community use, may only be used for environmental friendly and educational uses, because of its sensitive location in the PNR.

7.3.2 Blackout facilities, projection equipment and a screen enable this facility to be used for audio-visual educational purposes.

7.3.3 Suitable display material and collections, e.g. geology specimens, should be available to enhance education programmes.

7.3.4 Persons or groups wishing to make use of it, must be book and pay, if required, for it in advance through the PNR Manager.


7.4.1 The discovery of artifacts at Gwalagwala which indicate Stone and Iron Age occupation, enables the existing educational programmes, focussing on the natural environment, to be expanded to incorporate archaeological, historical and cultural dimensions, thereby creating a holistic learning environment for the learner. The interpretation of knowledge from the archaeological research at the site should be appropriately incorporated in the development of these education programmes.

7.4.2 Visual, and audio-visual programmes should be developed for use in the Frank Farrer Hall to introduce learners and groups to the theme before visiting the Heritage site.

7.4.3 The dissemination of information, on waterproof boards, about the people who inhabited the area should be available at the site. Apart from the iron age, the stone age should also be included, as artifacts of the latter have also been found elsewhere in PNR.

7.4.4 Practical, 'hands-on' activities should be available for scholars and education groups at the site, e.g. a simulated archaeological dig to stimulate learners.

7.4.5 Casual access to the site is not possible. Booking is therefore essential, to ensure that an interested group can gain access and be accompanied by a PNR Field Ranger or PNR volunteer.


Preamble: Located at the base of the Gwalagwala Cliff, the discovery of iron age artifacts renders this site as an important venue for interested visitors and educational programmes related to prehistory cultures. Lange (2003) has emphasised the cultural heritage and community based educational possibilities of the site, the implementation and management of which is outlined in the Clauses in 7.4. AMAFA has confirmed that a full investigation at the site as well as in PNR is justified.


8.1.1 The PNRMANCOM has identified the need for research and development at the site, including a thorough archaeological investigation to be done by qualified archaeologists and the keeping of a visual record of the survey

8.1.2 In conjunction with AMAFA, PNRMANCOM is to develop management guidelines for the site, including:
-principles, policies and objectives for the management of the site
-utilisation of the site
-monitoring of the site
-survey and research.

8.1.3 Protection of the site and visitor access: it is recommended that the site be fenced with a lockup gate to combat vandalism. Access should be organised by booking, to ensure that an interested group can enter and be accompanied by a PNR Field Ranger or volunteer.

8.1.4 Access to this site will be enhanced by the construction of a pedestrian bridge over the river (see Clause 6.5).


8.2.1 Any archaeological artifacts found in PNR shall remain the property of the PNR.

8.2.2 They shall be properly recorded in a register and the area they were discovered is to be marked on a map.

8.2.3 All PNR archaeological artifacts shall be housed for safe keeping in the Bergtheil Museum, Westville.


Preamble: PNR is fortunate that many research projects have been undertaken over the years, the
most notable being the ongoing work conducted on the Long-tailed Wagtail by Prof. Steven Piper. Important decisions concerning management can accrue through well structured scientific evaluation.


It is important that research projects be encouraged in PNR. These may take the form of:

9.1.1 ongoing research which relates directly to the PNR and its management strategy and/or

9.1.2 research of a wider nature, linked to a wildlife, ecological or environmental aspect in PNR.


Researchers shall register their project with the PNR Manager on the prescribed application form in duplicate, one for the applicant and the other for the PNR Manager. It shall request the following:

(1) Name and status of researcher and date of application
(2) Address and telephone number(s) and email address if available
(3) Topic of research and expected time scale for completion
(4) Reason for the research, e.g. for fulfilment of a degree
(5) Brief synopsis of methodology to be employed
(6) The applicant must indicate whether there will be any removal of specimens, fauna or flora, from PNR. Permission may be granted on individual merits.
(7) Special conditions (space to be justify for PNR Manager to state these)

(8) Signature of applicant and of PNR Manager.
(9) The statement: A copy of the research report must be handed to the Manager of the Palmiet Nature Reserve is to be printed at the end of the application form.


9.3.1 The researcher must supply a copy of his final research report or document to the PNR Manager. The Manager shall make any research report received available to other researchers or interested persons, on request.

9.3.2 All research documents handed to the PNR Manager, shall ultimately be placed in the PNR archives, housed in the Bergtheil Museum in Westville.

9.3.3 Research papers relating to the PNR should, where possible, be included in the Palmiet Meandering journal (See Clause 2.3.5).

9.3.4 It might assist researchers to establish a herbarium of flora found in PNR. It should, however, be noted that a comprehensive herbarium exists at UD-W, in which case it would be prudent to ensure that the PNR flora is represented in this collection.


10.1 USE OF isiZULU

10.1.1 isiZulu should be used wherever possible and/or wherever appropriate in the naming of places and features within PNR.

10.1.2 Guided Trails should be conducted in isiZulu when required. Where possible, literature should be available in isiZulu.


The floodlighting of cliffs in the PNR by adjacent residents is not permitted (PNRMANCOM 13/08/2003). It must be appreciated that it is a privilege to live in close proximity to a natural area and that, as these cliffs are home to wildlife, a responsible approach should be exercised in this regard.


Most of the cliffs in PNR, with development on their summits, have been used for the disposal of rubble, particularly that generated by building contractors, and household waste. Every effort should be made to trace the origin of this junk so as to request that the person responsible remove it.


11.1 Records: The PNR Manager shall keep records of the implementation of the management programme, research and experimentation in PNR.

11.2 The records are to be ultimately placed in the PNR archives for future reference by researchers and interested persons.

11.3 Archives: All historical documents relating to the PNR, including PNRMANCOM minutes, reports, research documents and reports, photographs, newsletters, articles and newspaper reports, shall be appropriately preserved for safe keeping in the PNR archives.

11.4 The archives are housed for safe keeping at the Bergtheil Museum, Westville, where they shall be made available, on request, to interested persons researching or requiring information on the PNR.


There are not many opportunities to increase the present size of PNR, as there are not many sizeable open space areas justify for this purpose. The only possible prospects are:

12.1 An area to the west of Loerie Park and the Umthini Stream, where a future subdivision could result in endowment land being added to PNR.

12.2 Negotiations should be initiated to encourage the transfer of the forested southern slope of the University of Durban-Westville, which is maintained in a natural state as part of its Conservancy, into the PNR for the following reasons:

(1) the land is steep and of little or no use for the future expansion of the University campus,
(2) the forest is perhaps the best in this portion of the Palmiet valley, if not in the entire valley, and would be a tremendous asset to PNR,
(3) it would enable the isolated Dwyka Cliff, an endowment from the Derby Downs development, to become an integral part of PNR, and
(4) the PNR maintains, on behalf of the University Conservancy, the hiking trail path through this area.

(5) Should this area be added to PNR, the University must be assured that access is available to this area for staff and students for educational and research purposes.

12.3 Although already part of PNR, the isolated Mbongokazi area should be actively managed and the PNRMANCOM decide how it is to be managed, either it:
(1) remains a Zone 1 restricted use area, or it
(2) becomes a Zone 2 moderate use area, in which case, negotiation will have to take place with the University of Durban-Westville to enable a link path to be made to connect it to PNR. This could extend to the attractive Mbongokazi Falls.


Acocks, JPH 1975 Veld types of South Africa Botanical Research Institute, No. 40, Pretoria.

Brooks, H 1876 Natal: A history and description of the Colony Reeve, London.

Butler, S 2000 An assessment of the response of grasshoppers to a rotational burning programme on a coastal-bushveld grassland Research in Palmiet Nature Reserve, Westville.

Cole, M 1961 South Africa Methuen, London.

Cottrell, M J 1978 An assessment of the value of a small nature reserve, with particular reference to the Palmiet Nature Reserve, Westville, Natal
M.A. in Environmental Studies thesis, University of Cape Town.

Cottrell, M J 2001 Degradation and rehabilitation of rivers, with reference to the Palmiet River, an urban river west of Durban PNR field study prepared for UD-W geography students.

Currey, RN 1968 Letters and other writings of a Natal Sheriff, Thomas Phipson, 1815 - 1876 Oxford University Press, Cape Town.

De Smidt, S 1987 The structure and dynamics of Faurea saligna Harv. stands in the Palmiet Nature Reserve, Westville, Natal B.Sc. (Hons.) degree in Botany, UD-W.

Dunlevey, J 1999 Geology of the Palmiet Nature Reserve University of Durban-Westville.

Fennessy, ST 1988 An assessment of the impact of fire on the small mammal population of the Palmiet Nature Reserve University of Durban-Westville.

Kern, NG 1981 The influence of fire on populations of small mammals of the Kruger National Park Koedoe 24, Pp 125 - 157.

Le Roux, NP u/d Conservation of the grasslands of the Umtamvuna Nature Reserve Includes the importance of coastal grasslands. Undated, Natal Parks Board.

Lange, M 2003 A community based education project, emphasising cultural heritage This relates to PNR. Westville.

Liggitt, B 1983 The invasive alien plant Chromolaena odorata, with regard to its status and control in Natal
Institute of Natural Resources, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, P.21.

Link, DM 1985 A management plan for the New Germany Nature Reserve
Borough of New Germany.

Moll, EJ (Ed.) 1975 A report on the general ecological status of the New Germany Commonage, and some recommendations for the future development and use of the area Trustees of the Commonage, New Germany.

National Dept. 2000 List of alien invader plants It has 3 categories: 1- must be removed,
of Agriculture 2 - may be grown under controlled conditions, 3 - may not be planted.

Rowe- 1983 Fire and Wildlife. Grasslands in Wildlife Management Cedara,
Rowe, RT Grassland Research Society.

Schoute- 1985 Palmiet Nature Reserve self-guided trails
Vanneck, CA Palmiet Publications, Westville.

Schmitz, PMU1997 The development of an urban component of the ACRU model Water
& De Villiers, G du T Research Commission, Pretoria.

Usher, M B 1973 Biological management and conservation
Chapman and Hall, London, esp. Pp 299 - 302 & 307 - 315.

Personal Communications

Butler, S 1990 Discussion on interval of fire for the maintenance of grass communities. S Butler is the PNR Manager.

D'Eathe, L 2000 The re-introduction of Prionium serratum (Palmiet) into the Palmiet River catchment - a project of the Umvuzi Conservancy, of which L D'Eathe is the former Chairman.

Emery, N 2000 N Emery is a soil consultant engineer.

Read, CS 2003 The Palmiet Nature Reserve web site. CS Read is a member of the PNR.
Ward, CJ 1974 Grassland management in Palmiet Nature Reserve. CJ Ward was a Senior Lecturer in Botany at the University of Durban-Westville and a former member of PNRMANCOM.




The PNR occupies the following Lot numbers, with size of each and date when included in PNR:
Lot 3094; R / 5 / 1255; 6 / 1254; Rem 1253; Lot 380, 13,2 ha, 1972; 1 / 192; 2 / 192;
R / 192, 0.7 ha; Lot 417, 21,5ha; R / 3011; R / 1240, 3,2 ha; 10 / 3 / 2661; 11 / 3 / 2661;
12 / 5 / 2661; 13 / 6 / 2661; 7 / 2661; R / 1261, 1.2 ha; 2 / 1262; 1 / 1262; 1 / 1263; 1272;
River Reserve 1288; 13 / 6 / 166; 12 / 5 / 166; 11 / 4 / 166; 10 / 3 / 166

'De facto' - excluded from application: 4/1291 Loerie Park and 2920 (Albizia)













APPENDIX 3 Key: _________ = new wording, [ ] = wording removed.



as adopted by the PNRMANCOM on 03/03/1986 and by Resolution 7383 of the former Westville Town Council on 26/07/1988. PNRMANCOM modified Clause 6.1 on 15/02/1988 and amended this Clause and Clauses 2 and 3 on 16/02/1998, and Clauses 3.1, 6.1, [6.3], [6.6], 7.1.4, 7.3.3, 7.4, 8.10, 8.14, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 11.2 and 11.3 on 12/11/2003.

(Hereinafter referred to as the Management Committee).

2. AIM:
2.1 To promote the management and expansion of the Palmiet Nature Reserve (hereinafter referred to as the Reserve).
2.2 To establish, update and promote a management plan for the Reserve.
2.3 To preserve a witness area of the former natural heritage through effective ecological conservation and management of biodiversity and habitats of indigenous flora and fauna, including avifauna, reptiles, insects and aquatic species.
2.4 To encourage optimal use by all people for passive recreation and education, provided these do not conflict with the management aims referred to in clauses 2.2 and 2.3.

3.1 To manage on behalf of the [eThembeni] City Council (hereinafter referred to as the Council) in which the Reserve is located, all aspects of the Reserve and to maintain liaison with the Council on all matters of common interest, including the furnishing of a comprehensive annual report on all aspects of the management of the Reserve and activities during the year.
3.2 To compile and keep adequate documentation relating to management, development, expansion and problems of the Reserve.
3.3 To design and update research programmes for management and development, aided, where necessary, by interested persons, universities and other organisations.
3.4 To promote environmental and conservation awareness with the view to establishing pubic initiatives, interaction and involvement.
3.5 To disseminate information to encourage public interest in the Reserve and participation in organised activities and especially to promote an education programme, including environmental and recreational trails.
3.6 To involve the local community, especially in the vicinity of the Reserve, interested persons and organisations to:
? gain insights and ideas
? widen perspectives
? exchange information
? contribute opinions on important issues
? encourage research possibilities and obtain co-operation and support for management aims and objectives.
The area in which the committee will function includes all areas within the Reserve and any linked or integrated public open space and environmental protection reserve.

Members elected to the Management Committee shall have a knowledge of and interest in nature conservation, and/or ecology, and/or environmental education, and/or Nature Reserve administration.

6.1 The Management Committee members shall include [consist of not more than 10 persons, comprising]:

? a City Councillor, preferably from the Ward in which the Reserve is located [or his/her alternate]
? the Reserve Manager [Borough Environmental Officer], employed by the City Council
? [a Borough staff liaison representative]
? the Honorary Warden or co-ordinator of management, if appointed
? FOUR members elected annually from nominations motivated by the Friends of the Palmiet (also known as the Palmiet Environmental Society)
? ONE representative from:
- the Highway Branch of the Wildlife and Environment Society
- each of the Urban Conservancies adjoining the Reserve
- the University of Durban-Westville
- Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife.

6.2 The Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer shall be elected by the Management Committee, from amongst its members; provided that no office bearer shall hold office for a continuous period exceeding five years.
[6.3 The Management Committee members, apart from the Warden and those representing the Council, Wildlife society and University, shall be appointed annually from nominations submitted and motivated by the Palmiet Environmental Society;]
6.3 The Management Committee may delegate any if its executive powers to subcommittees as it sees fit. Such subcommittees shall be subject to the same limitations as the Management Committee.
6.4 The Management Committee may co-opt persons with special knowledge or abilities onto a subcommittee. Co-opted members shall have full voting rights in their relevant subcommittees, but no voting rights at any Management Committee meetings, if invited to attend.
[6.6 The Management Committee shall be responsible for the control of the rangers employed in the Nature Reserve and the allocation of their duties.]

7.1 The Chairman
The Chairman of the Management Committee shall:
7.1.1 preside at every meeting of the Committee at which he/she is present;
7.1.2 be entitled to vote in the first instance and, in the case of an equality of votes, may give a second or casting vote. Where the Chairman has not voted in the first instance, he/ she may, in the case of an equality of votes, give a casting vote;
7.1.3 sign the minutes when the same have been confirmed by the Management Committee;
7.1.4 prepare an annual report to be presented to a meeting prescribed in Clause 8.14 [the members of the Management Committee] and the Council by the end of the month of November [April].
7.2 Vice-Chairman
The Vice-Chairman shall, when presiding, have the same powers and rights of voting as those possessed by the Chairman.
7.3 Secretary
The Secretary shall be responsible for:
7.3.1 all correspondence,
7.3.2 the minutes of all meetings
7.3.3 drawing up the agenda for Committee Meetings, to be distributed as set out in Clause 8.3
7.4 Treasurer
The Treasurer shall be responsible for the financial administration of the income and expenditure of the Management Committee and the Palmiet Nature Reserve Development Fund.

8.1 Management Committee meetings shall be held at least three times a year;
8.2 The quorum of the Management Committee shall be 50% of the number of its members;
8.3 At least fourteen days before any meeting of the Management Committee a notice to attend the meeting specifying the business to be transacted thereat and signed by the Secretary shall be justify or delivered at the usual residence of each committee member;
8.4 Accidental omission of service of notice on any Management Committee member shall not affect the validity of the meeting;
8.5 No business shall be transacted at a meeting other than that specified in the notice relating thereto except any matters which the Chairman considers urgent or which the Management Committee resolves to deal with as urgent;
8.6 The Management Committee shall from time to time fix the date and times of meetings;
8.7 If deemed necessary by the Chairman, the Secretary shall call a special meeting of the Management Committee at a time and on a date specified on a notice of such meeting;
8.8 Every matter brought before the Management Committee shall be decided by a majority of those present and voting, if necessary, shall be by a show of hands;
8.9 Minutes shall be kept of the proceedings of all meetings containing:
8.9.1 date of meeting;
8.9.2 names of members present and those with leave of absence;
8.9.3 confirmation or if necessary, the alteration of the minutes of the previous meeting /s;

8.9.4 record of all decisions taken;
8.9.5 if required, a record of those members voting for or against any decision;
8.10 The minutes of all meetings shall be taken as read at the next meeting and after confirmation, signed by the Chairman, thereby accepting the minutes as a true record of the proceedings of that meeting;
8.11 When so requested by the Chairman, each proposal or amendment shall be set out in writing;
8.12 No proposal or amendment may be withdrawn by the mover without the consent of the seconder and the approval of the meeting;
8.13 When speaking, a member shall address the Chairman and if two or more members offer to address the Chairman at the same time, he/she shall call on one to speak and shall indicate the order in which the other or others not so called on to speak thereafter;
8.14 An Annual General Meeting may take place, together with the Friends of the Palmiet (formerly Palmiet Environmental Society) if desired, to receive the Chairman's annual report, the audited financial statements and to present the Friend of the Palmiet Award to deserving candidates and whatever items may be decided. The format contained in Clauses 8.1 to 8.13 may be followed during this meeting. Should this meeting not be held, the reports and awards may be presented at a normal Management Committee meeting.

9.1 Funds of the Management Committee shall be used for [the ends of] use in the Palmiet Nature Reserve alone;
9.2 A bank [ing] account will be opened at an approved, registered bank [or building society] in the name of the Management Committee and all funds belonging to the Management Committee shall be deposited there;
9.3.1 A further account, to be known as the Palmiet Nature Reserve Development Fund, will be opened at a registered bank [or building society], for purposes of receiving donations;
9.3.2 This account is to be audited and presented annually to a meeting as prescribed in Clause 8.14 [an annual general meeting of the Palmiet Environmental Society];
9.4 The Treasurer alone issues all payments by cheque, which must be signed by two signatories from three, which shall include the Treasurer, [and] the Chairman [or Vice-Chairman] and one other member appointed by the Management Committee;
9.5 The Treasurer will open and keep a set of books of account which shall be audited by a competent auditor appointed by the Management Committee [the Treasurer of the Borough of Westville or his nominee];
9.6 The financial year of the Management Committee closes on the last day of June [January] each year and financial statements will be presented to members at an ensuing meeting prescribed in Clause 8.14.

10.1 Any stipulation of this constitution may be altered at a meeting by not less than two thirds of the members of the Management Committee;
10.2 Any proposed amendment must reach the Secretary in writing at least one month before a scheduled meeting of the Management Committee. When notifying members of the meeting, the Secretary must also mention the proposed amendment to the constitution.

11.1 The Management Committee shall be dissolved if a resolution to that end is passed by the Council or a majority of more that two thirds of those members personally present at a duly constituted meeting.
11.2 On the dissolution of the Management Committee the assets (after winding up and the deduction of liabilities) shall be transferred to a conservation organisation as directed by the Management Committee [to the Town Council of the Borough of Westville].
11.3 Financial assets of the PNR Development Fund shall be transferred in accordance with the constitution of this Fund.




Approved by the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee on 06/11/1979 and
Clauses 2, 3 and 4 modified and approved by this Committee on 12/11/2003

To provide the opportunity of encouraging donations for the purpose of development projects within the Palmiet Nature Reserve.

Contributions / donations are to be placed in a suitable [Building Society Savings Account or] registered bank[ing] account. A treasurer, elected at [the Annual Meeting] a meeting of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee, shall keep account of the donations, other income and expenditure. Two [further] signatories from three, which shall include the Treasurer, the Chairman and one other member of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee, [and one other member], shall be appointed to sign to enable withdrawal transactions to be concluded. [in the absence of one of the two signatories required to withdraw from the fund]

The account shall be audited annually and a statement presented at either the Annual Meeting of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee/ Friends of the Palmiet or a meeting of the Palmiet Nature Reserve Management Committee. The financial year-end shall be determined by this Committee.

Should it be necessary, for any reason, to close this fund, the balance of monies remaining in the fund shall be transferred to a conservation organisation such as the Highway Branch [Region] of the KwaZulu-Natal Region of the Wildlife and Environmental Society of Southern Africa or its successors in title.

Palmiet Nature Reserve03 August 2009